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Turkey Facts

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 TURKISH POLITICAL
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Background: Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
 
 
Common Name: Turkey Local Official Name: Turkiye
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Turkey Official Name: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
Official Script Name: Turkey Local Common Name: Turkey
Former Name: Turkey Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER
 
Government Type: republican parliamentary democracy
 
Independence: 1923 October 29 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
 
Constitution: 1982 November 7
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 29 October
 
International Organization Participation: AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
 
Administrative Divisions: 81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a single seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60% note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot Legislative Branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held in 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister, on 14 March 2003 election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, Anavatan 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and other; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2005 - AKP 357, CHP 154, ANAVATAN 22, DYP 4, SHP 4, HYP 1, independents 4, vacant 4 Judicial Branch: Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
 
Party Leaders: Anavatan Partisi (once was Motherland Party) or ANAVATAN [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBAKAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasr Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004
 
International Disputes: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
 
Illicit Drugs: key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls 
 
 
 TURKISH GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Turkey: southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syr
 
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 780,580 sq km 
Region: South Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 770,760 sq km
Capitol City: Ankara Land Area Water: 9,820 sq km
      
Latitude: 039 00 N Border Boundary Land: 2,648 km
Longitude: 035 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 7,200 km 
  
Arable Land: 29.81 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 3.39 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 5,166 m Location: Mount Ararat
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Mediterranean Sea
  
Largest City in Turkey: Istanbul Istanbul Largest City Population: 9,148,000
  
Threatened Species: 88
 
Environmental Issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
 
Irrigated Land: 42,000
 
Bordering Countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
 
Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
 
Comparative Area of Turkey: slightly larger than Texas
 
Turkey's Geography: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
 

 TURKISH CLIMATE
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General Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
 
Natural Hazards: severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
 
 
 TURKISH ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low. Despite the strong economic gains in 2002-05, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high debt. The public sector fiscal deficit exceeds 6% of GDP - due in large part to high interest payments, which accounted for about 37% of central government spending in 2004. Prior to 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion.
 
 
GDP: $584,500,000,000 USD Currency: Turkish lira
GDP per Capita: $8,400 USD Currency Code: TRL;
GDP Growth Rate: 7.40 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003), 1.5072 (2002), 1.2256 (2001) note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish Lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish Lira
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 11.70 % GDP of Industry: 29.80 %
GDP of Services: 58.80 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 8.20 % Population in Poverty: 20.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 10.20 % Tourism: 6,893,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 2.30 % Budget Revenue in USD: $93,580,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 30.70 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $115,300,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 133,600,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 600,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 140,300,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 1,200,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 74.09% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 25.65% Other Electricity Production: 0.26%
   
Oil Production: 50,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 560,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 715,100 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 22,600,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 46,100 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 616,500 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 15,750,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 8,495,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $170,100,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $635,800,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $195,000,000 USD
   
Agricultural Products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
 
Primary Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 5.90 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $101,200,000,000 USD - machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
 
Import Partners: Germany 11.7%, Russia 11%, Italy 6.5%, China 5.9%, France 5%, US 4.6%, UK 4%
 
Export Amount in USD: $72,490,000,000 USD - apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
 
Export Partners: Germany 12.9%, UK 8.1%, Italy 7.6%, US 6.7%, France 5.2%, Spain 4.1%
 
    
GINI Index: 42.00%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 24,700,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 35.9%, industry: 22.8%, services: 41.2%
 
  
 TURKISH COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 129 Number of People with Radios: 11,300,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 635 Number of People with Televisions: 20,900,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 18,978,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 43,609,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 753,394 Internet Users: 16,000,000
 
Internet Country Code: .tr Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: TU Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 90 Electricity Voltage: 230 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems
 
  
 TURKISH TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 154,807 km Railways: 8,697 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 6,739 km Waterways: 1,200 km
Airports: 89 Heliports: 18
 
Motor Vehicles: 73 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 198,013,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 3.10 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 545 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,772,864 GRT/7,313,070 DWT by type: bulk carrier 109, cargo 239, chemical tanker 50, container 24, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 24, specialized tanker 2 foreign-owned: 7 (Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Italy 3, Switzerland 1) registered in other countries: 411 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 8, Bahamas 8, Belize 11, Cambodia 26, Comoros 11, Dominica 3, Georgia 30, Isle of Man 3, North Korea 4, Liberia 1, Libya 2, Malta 123, Marshall Islands 20, Netherlands Antilles 9, Panama 42, Russia 63, Saint Kitts and Nevis 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 8, Tuvalu 2, UK 2, unknown 3)
 
Ports and Harbors: Aliaga, Ambarli, Eregli, Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Toros
 
  
 TURKISH PEOPLE
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Population: 70 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 16.62 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 92.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 5.97 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.06% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.92 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 9 Population Female 0-14: 8
Population Male 15-64: 24 Population Female 15-64: 23
Population Male 65+: 2 Population Female 65+: 2
 
Population 0-14: 25.50% Literacy Rate: 86.50%
Population 15-64: 67.70% Literacy rate of Males: 94.30%
Population 65+: 6.80% Literacy rate of Females: 78.70%
 
Population that is Male: 51.00 % Population that is Female: 49.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 72.62 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 39.69 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 70.18 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 75.18 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.00% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: TURKISH
 
Ethnic Groups: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% 
 
  
Primary Language: Turkish
 
Other Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
 
 
Primary Religion: Muslim
 
Other Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
 
  
 TURKISH MILITARY
  Turkey Facts |  Republic of Turkey Information | Turkey Statistics  
  
Branches: Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces (includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 20 years
 
Manpower Available: 32,808,029 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 27,241,713 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 1,338,824 People per year
 
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 5.00
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 TURKISH RESOURCES
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Turkey Spa and Resort Directory
 
Turkey Home Exchanges and Home Swaps
 
Turkey Vacation Rentals And Holiday Villas
 

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