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Turkmenistan Facts

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Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President Saparmurat NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded. The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes in order to break Russia's pipeline monopoly.
Common Name: Turkmenistan Local Official Name: Turkmenistan
Abbreviated Name: Turkmenistan Official Name: Turkmenistan
Official Script Name: Turkmenistan Local Common Name: Turkmenistan
Former Name: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Saparmurat NIYAZOV
Government Type: Republic; Authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Independence: 1991 October 27 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution: 1992 May 18 (adopted)
National Holiday: Independence Day, 27 October
International Organization Participation: AsDB, CIS (associate), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Administrative Divisions: 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Excutive Branch: Chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28 December 1999 during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty); in November 2005 the People's Council voted down NIYAZOV's suggestion to hold presidential elections in 2009 Elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992; note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the People's Council on 28 December 1999; deputy chairmen of the Cabinet of Ministers are appointed by the president Election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5% Legislative Branch: under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (supreme legislative body of up to 2,500 delegates, some of whom are elected by popular vote and some of whom are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Parliament or Mejlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); membership is scheduled to be increased to 65 seats Elections: People's Council - last held in April 2003 (next to be held December 2008); Mejlis - last held 19 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008) election results: Mejlis - DPT 100%; seats by party - DPT 50; note - all 50 elected officials are members of the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan and are preapproved by President NIYAZOV Note: in late 2003, a new law was adopted, reducing the powers of the Mejlis and making the Halk Maslahaty the supreme legislative organ; the Halk Maslahaty can now legally dissolve the Mejlis, and the president is now able to participate in the Mejlis as its supreme leader; the Mejlis can no longer adopt or amend the constitution, or announce referendums or its elections; since the president is both the "Chairman for Life" of the Halk Maslahaty and the supreme leader of the Mejlis, the 2003 law has the effect of making him the sole authority of both the executive and legislative branches of government. Judicial Branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Party Leaders: Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV] note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2002 assassination attempt on President NIYAZOV; UDPT is led by former Foreign Minister Abdy KULIEV and is based out of Moscow
International Disputes: Cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; demarcation of land boundary with Kazakhstan has started but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled.
Illicit Drugs: Transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan. 
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Location of Turkmenistan: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 488,100 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 488,100 sq km
Capitol City: Ashgabat Land Area Water: 0 sq km
Latitude: 040 00 N Border Boundary Land: 3,736 km
Longitude: 060 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 4.51 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.14 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 3,139 m Location: Gora Ayribaba
Lowest Elevation: -81 m Location: Vpadina Akchanaya
Largest City in Turkmenistan: Ashkhabad Ashkhabad Largest City Population: 525,000
Threatened Species: 34
Environmental Issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Irrigated Land: 18,000
Bordering Countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt
Geographical Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Comparative Area of Turkmenistan: slightly larger than California
Turkmenistan's Geography: landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau

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General Climate: subtropical desert
Natural Hazards: NA
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Economic Overview: Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; formerly it was the world's tenth-largest producer. Poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2005, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 20% to 30% per year in 2003-2005, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. In 2005, Ashgabat sought to raise natural gas export prices to its main customers, Russia and Ukraine, from $44 per thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $66 per tcm. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, the government's irrational use of oil and gas revenues, and its unwillingness to adopt market-oriented reforms. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In particular, the rate of GDP growth is uncertain.
GDP: $39,540,000,000 USD Currency: Turkmen manat
GDP per Capita: $8,000 USD Currency Code: TMM
GDP Growth Rate: 4.00 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: In recent years the unofficial rate has hovered around 24,000 to 25,000 Turkmen manats to the dollar; the official rate has consistently been 5,200 manat to the dollar.
GDP of Agriculture: 20.90 % GDP of Industry: 13.80 %
GDP of Services: 37.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 10.50 % Population in Poverty: 58.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.00 % Tourism: 300,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 26.00 % Budget Revenue in USD: $1,401,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 31.70 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $1,542,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 11,410,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,136,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 8,847,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 99.94% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 0.06% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 2,034,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 54,600,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 80,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 15,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 38,600,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 273,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 2,010,000,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $2,400,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $16,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: cotton, grain; livestock
Primary Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Industrial Growth Rate: 22.00 %
Import Amount in USD: $4,175,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Import Partners: UAE 12.8%, US 9.8%, Turkey 9.6%, Russia 9.2%, Ukraine 7.7%, Iran 6.3%, Germany 5.5%, Georgia 5.4%, Kazakhstan 4.3%
Export Amount in USD: $4,700,000,000 USD - gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber, textiles
Export Partners: Ukraine 45.2%, Iran 15.6%, Hungary 5.6%
GINI Index: 40.80%
Labor Force Number of People: 2,320,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 48.2%, industry 13.8%, services 37%
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 26 Number of People with Radios: 1,225,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 4 Number of People with Televisions: 820,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 376,100 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 52,000
Internet Service Providers: 557 Internet Users: 36,000
Internet Country Code: .tm Newspapers: 0
Two Letter Country Code: TX Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +993 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: General assessment: poorly developed Domestic: NA International: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
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Highways: 19,488 km Railways: 2,440 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 4,650 km Waterways: 1,300 km
Airports: 22 Heliports: 1
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 30,767,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: Total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,870 GRT/25,801 DWT By type: cargo 4, combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1
Ports and Harbors: Turkmenbasy
  Turkmenistan Facts |  Turkmenistan Information | Turkmenistan Statistics  
Population: 5,042,920 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 27.61 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 10.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 8.60 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.83% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 3.37 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 913,988 Population Female 0-14: 863,503
Population Male 15-64: 1,501,486 Population Female 15-64: 1,557,155
Population Male 65+: 79,227 Population Female 65+: 127,561
Population 0-14: 35.20% Literacy Rate: 98.80%
Population 15-64: 60.70% Literacy rate of Males: 99.30%
Population 65+: 4.10% Literacy rate of Females: 98.30%
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 61.83 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 72.56 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 58.43 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 65.41 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 0
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.75
Nationality: TURKMEN
Ethnic Groups: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% 
Primary Language: Turkmen
Other Languages: Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Primary Religion: Muslim
Other Religions: Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
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Branches: Ground Forces, Artillery and Rocket Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 2,295,402 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,700,157 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 111,945 People per year
Expenditures: $90,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.40
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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