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Background: Ukraine was the center of the first Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation for Ukrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A new Ukrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, most Ukrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine was able to bring about a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and forced to endure a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two artificial famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for some 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although final independence for Ukraine was achieved in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties. A peaceful mass protest "Orange Revolution" in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary elections and become prime minister in August of 2006.
Common Name: Ukraine Local Official Name: Ukrayina
Abbreviated Name: Ukraine Official Name: Ukraine
Official Script Name: Ukraine Local Common Name: Ukraine
Former Name: Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State, Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO
Government Type: republic
Independence: 1991 August 24 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution: adopted 1996 June 28
National Holiday: Independence Day, 24 August
International Organization Participation: Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer), ZC
Administrative Divisions: 24 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast'), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities (mista, singular - misto) with oblast status**; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol'), Dnipropetrovs'k, Donets'k, Ivano-Frankivs'k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel'nyts'kyy, Kirovohrad, Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans'k, L'viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol'**, Sumy, Ternopil', Vinnytsya, Volyn' (Luts'k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO (since 23 January 2005) head of government: Prime Minister Viktor YANUKOVYCH (since 4 August 2006); First Deputy Prime Minister - Mykola AZAROV (since 5 August 2006) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers selected by the prime minister; the only exceptions are the foreign and defense ministers, who are chosen by the president note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a Presidential Secretariat helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a special repeat runoff presidential election between Viktor YUSHCHENKO and Viktor YANUKOVYCH took place on 26 December 2004 after the earlier 21 November 2004 contest - won by Mr. YANUKOVYCH - was invalidated by the Ukrainian Supreme Court because of widespread and significant violations; under constitutional reforms that went into effect 1 January 2006, the majority in parliament takes the lead in naming the prime minister election results: Viktor YUSHCHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Viktor YUSHCHENKO 51.99%, Viktor YANUKOVYCH 44.2% Legislative Branch: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; allocated on a proportional basis to those parties that gain 3% or more of the national electoral vote; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 26 March 2006 (next to be held March 2011) election results: percent of vote by party/bloc in 2002 - Party of Regions 32.1%, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 22.3%, Our Ukraine 13.9%, SPU 5.7%, CPU 3.7%; seats by party/bloc - Party of Regions 186, Yuliya Tymoshenko Bloc 129, Our Ukraine 81, SPU 33, CPU 21 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Party Leaders: Communist Party of Ukraine or CPU [Petro SYMONENKO]; Fatherland Party (Batkivshchyna) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]; Lytyvn-led People's Bloc group [Ihor SHAROV]; Our Ukraine [Viktor YUSHCHENKO]; Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs [Anatoliy KINAKH]; People's Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) [Borys TARASYUK]; People's Party [Volodymyr LYTVYN]; People's Trust group [Anton KISSE]; PORA! (It's Time!) party [Vladyslav KASKIV]; Progressive Socialist Party [Natalya VITRENKO]; Reforms and Order Party [Viktor PYNZENYK]; Party of Regions [Viktor YANUKOVYCH]; Republican Party [Yuriy BOYKO]; Socialist Party of Ukraine or SPU [Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman]; Ukrainian People's Party [Yuriy KOSTENKO]; United Social Democratic Party [Viktor MEDVEDCHUK]; United Ukraine [Bohdan HUBSKYY]; Vidrodzhennya (Revival) [Anton KISSE]
International Disputes: 1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and parties have renewed discussions on demarcation; the dispute over the maritime boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and ongoing expert-level discussions; Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region, which remains under OSCE supervision; in 2004 Ukraine and Romania took their dispute over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary to the ICJ for adjudication; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Illicit Drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF 
  Ukraine Facts |  Ukraine Information | Ukraine Statistics  
Location of Ukraine: Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Continent: Europe Land Area Total: 603,700 sq km 
Region: Eastern Europe Land Area Land: 603,700 sq km
Capitol City: Kiev (Kyyiv) Land Area Water: 0 sq km
Latitude: 049 00 N Border Boundary Land: 4,663 km
Longitude: 032 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 2,782 km 
Arable Land: 53.80 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.50 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 2,061 m Location: Hora Hoverla
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Black Sea
Largest City in Ukraine: Kiev Kiev Largest City Population: 2,663,000
Threatened Species: 52
Environmental Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Environmental Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Irrigated Land: 22,080
Bordering Countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 526 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 97 km
Natural Resources: iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
Geographical Terrain: most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
Comparative Area of Ukraine: slightly smaller than Texas
Ukraine's Geography: strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe

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General Climate: temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
Natural Hazards: NA
  Ukraine Facts |  Ukraine Information | Ukraine Statistics  
Economic Overview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied the unique equipment (for example, large diameter pipes) and raw materials to industrial and mining sites (vertical drilling apparatus) in other regions of the former USSR. Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas, to meet some 85% of its annual energy requirements. Shortly after independence was ratified in December 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy supplies and the lack of significant structural reform have made the Ukrainian economy vulnerable to external shocks. A dispute with Russia over pricing led to a temporary gas cut-off; Ukraine concluded a deal with Russia in January 2006, which almost doubled the price Ukraine pays for Russian gas, and could cost the Ukrainian economy $1.4-2.2 billion and cause GDP growth to fall 3-4%. Ukrainian government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy, but more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the legislative framework for businesses. Reforms in the more politically sensitive areas of structural reform and land privatization are still lagging. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF - have encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms. GDP growth was 2.4% in 2005, down from 12.4% in 2004. The current account surplus reached $2.2 billion in 2005. The privatization of the Kryvoryzhstal steelworks in late 2005 produced $4.8 billion in windfall revenue for the government. Some of the proceeds were used to finance the budget deficit, some to recapitalize two state banks, some to retire public debt, and the rest may be used to finance future deficits.
GDP: $329,100,000,000 USD Currency: hryvnia
GDP per Capita: $7,000 USD Currency Code: UAH
GDP Growth Rate: 2.60 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: hryvnia per US dollar - 5.1247 (2005), 5.3192 (2004), 5.3327 (2003), 5.3266 (2002), 5.3722 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 18.70 % GDP of Industry: 45.20 %
GDP of Services: 36.10 %  
Inflation Rate: 13.50 % Population in Poverty: 29.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 3.10 % Tourism: 4,232,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.40 % Budget Revenue in USD: $23,590,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 24.80 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $22,980,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 181,300,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 1,000,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 176,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 255,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 49.54% Nuclear Electricity Production: 43.44%
Hydro Electricity Production: 7.02% Other Electricity Production: 0.01%
Oil Production: 85,660 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 20,300,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 491,700 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 75,800,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 8,891 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 3,900,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 444,600 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 59,800,000,000 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 395,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 1,121,000,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $23,930,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $637,700,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
Primary Industries: coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing (especially sugar)
Industrial Growth Rate: 3.20 %
Import Amount in USD: $37,180,000,000 USD - energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Import Partners: Russia 35.5%, Germany 9.4%, Turkmenistan 7.4%, China 5%
Export Amount in USD: $38,220,000,000 USD - ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, food products
Export Partners: Russia 22.1%, Turkey 6%, Italy 5.6%
GINI Index: 29.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 22,670,000
Labor Force by Occupations: industry 32%, agriculture 24%, services 44%
  Ukraine Facts |  Ukraine Information | Ukraine Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 427 Number of People with Radios: 45,050,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 33 Number of People with Televisions: 18,050,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 12,142,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 17,214,000
Internet Service Providers: 167,501 Internet Users: 5,278,100
Internet Country Code: .ua Newspapers: 175
Two Letter Country Code: UP Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 380 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan, running through 2005, emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile cellular system domestic: at independence in December 1991, Ukraine inherited a telephone system that was antiquated, inefficient, and in disrepair; more than 3.5 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied; telephone density is rising slowly and the domestic trunk system is being improved; the mobile cellular telephone system is expanding at a high rate international: country code - 380; two new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and three Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
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Highways: 164,772 km Railways: 22,473 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 28,778 km Waterways: 2,253 km
Airports: 193 Heliports: 10
Motor Vehicles: 102 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 314,445,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 7.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 202 ships (1000 GRT or over) 782,456 GRT/911,201 DWT by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 151, container 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 7, specialized tanker 2 foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1) registered in other countries: 160 (Belize 7, Cambodia 17, Comoros 14, Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Georgia 22, Liberia 16, Malta 24, Moldova 3, Mongolia 1, Panama 8, Russia 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12, Sierra Leone 4, Slovakia 8, unknown 4)
Ports and Harbors: Feodosiya, Kerch, Kherson, Mariupol', Mykolayiv, Odesa, Reni, Yuzhnyy
  Ukraine Facts |  Ukraine Information | Ukraine Statistics  
Population: 46,710,816 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 8.82 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 80.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 14.39 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: -0.60% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.17 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 3,377,868 Population Female 0-14: 3,203,738
Population Male 15-64: 15,559,998 Population Female 15-64: 16,831,486
Population Male 65+: 2,635,651 Population Female 65+: 5,102,075
Population 0-14: 14.10% Literacy Rate: 99.70%
Population 15-64: 69.30% Literacy rate of Males: 99.80%
Population 65+: 16.60% Literacy rate of Females: 99.60%
Population that is Male: 43.00 % Population that is Female: 57.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.98 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 9.90 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 64.71 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 75.59 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 1.40% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 360,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 20,000
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.43
Nationality: UKRAINIAN
Ethnic Groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% 
Primary Language: Ukrainian
Other Languages: Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%, small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities
Primary Religion: Ukrainian Orthodox
Other Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 19%, Orthodox (no particular jurisdiction) 16%, Ukrainian Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 9%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic 6%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 1.7%, Protestant, Jewish, none 38%
  Ukraine Facts |  Ukraine Information | Ukraine Statistics  
Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (Viyskovo-Povitryani Syly), Air Defense Forces
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 22,390,909 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 16,689,435 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 748,350 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.40
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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