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Uzbekistan Facts

Uzbekistan Facts | Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics | Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics
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  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Background: Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include insurgency by Islamic militants based in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a nonconvertible currency, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Common Name: Uzbekistan Local Official Name: Uzbekistan
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Uzbekistan Official Name: Uzbekiston Respublikasi
Official Script Name: Uzbekistan Local Common Name: Uzbekistan
Former Name: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Islom KARIMOV
Government Type: Republic; Authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Independence: 1991 September 1 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution: 1992 December 8 new constitution adopted
National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 September
International Organization Participation: AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Administrative Divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch) note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet) head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 December 2003) Cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held in 2007); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president Election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2% Legislative Branch: Bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an Upper House or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils to serve five-year terms and 16 are appointed by the president) and a Lower House or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) Elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009) Election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10 note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV Judicial Branch: Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Party Leaders: Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMMADOVA, chairman]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Xurshid DOSTMUHAMMADOV, chief]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHODMONOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, chief]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party
International Disputes: Prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; delimitation with Kazakhstan complete with demarcation underway; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas.
Illicit Drugs: Transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan. 
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Location of Uzbekistan: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 447,400 sq km 
Region: Central Asia Land Area Land: 425,400 sq km
Capitol City: Tashkent (Toshkent) Land Area Water: 22,000 sq km
Latitude: 041 00 N Border Boundary Land: 6,221 km
Longitude: 064 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
Arable Land: 10.51 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.76 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 4,301 m Location: Adelunga Toghi
Lowest Elevation: -12 m Location: Sariqarnish Kuli
Largest City in Uzbekistan: Tashkent Tashkent Largest City Population: 2,140,000
Threatened Species: 26
Environmental Issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT.
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Irrigated Land: 42,810
Bordering Countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Natural Resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Geographical Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in
Comparative Area of Uzbekistan: slightly larger than California
Uzbekistan's Geography: Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world.

  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
General Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Natural Hazards: NA
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Economic Overview: Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted the obligations of Article VIII under the International Monetary Fund (IMF), providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry would increase economic growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance" treaty, which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In December 2005, the Russians opened a "Trade House" to support and develop Russian-Uzbek business and economic ties.
GDP: $48,240,000,000 USD Currency: Uzbekistani soum
GDP per Capita: $1,800 USD Currency Code: UZS
GDP Growth Rate: 7.20 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2002), 423.832 (2002), 236.61 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 34.20 % GDP of Industry: 22.90 %
GDP of Services: 43.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 6.90 % Population in Poverty: 28.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 0.70 % Tourism: 0.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $2,815,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 22.00 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $2,917,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 46,520,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 5,360,000,000 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 48,450,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 10,550,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 86.95% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 13.05% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
Oil Production: 152,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 55,800,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 120,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 49,300,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 6,500,000,000 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 600,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 1,875,000,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $5,032,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $91,600,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Primary Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial Growth Rate: 7.70 %
Import Amount in USD: $3,800,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals
Import Partners: Russia 26.9%, South Korea 15.4%, Germany 8.9%, China 7.2%, Kazakhstan 6.5%, Turkey 4.9%, Ukraine 4.7%
Export Amount in USD: $5,000,000,000 USD - cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles
Export Partners: Russia 25.2%, China 12.6%, Turkey 6.7%, Ukraine 5.7%, Bangladesh 5%, Poland 4.4%, Tajikistan 4.3%
GINI Index: 26.80%
Labor Force Number of People: 14,260,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36%
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Radio Broadcast Stations: 37 Number of People with Radios: 10,800,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 4 Number of People with Televisions: 6,400,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 1,717,100 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 544,100
Internet Service Providers: 7,124 Internet Users: 880,000
Internet Country Code: .uz Newspapers: 3
Two Letter Country Code: UZ Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +998 Electricity Voltage: Volts
Telephone Systems: General assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization Domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent (Toshkent) and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System) International: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  


Highways: 71,237 km Railways: 3,950 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 10,051 km Waterways: 1,100 km
Airports: 34 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 0 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 102,157,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 4.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: NA
Ports and Harbors: Termiz (Amu Darya)
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Population: 27,307,134 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 26.36 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 58.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 7.84 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.70% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.91 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 4,572,721 Population Female 0-14: 4,403,405
Population Male 15-64: 8,420,174 Population Female 15-64: 8,594,478
Population Male 65+: 539,336 Population Female 65+: 777,020
Population 0-14: 32.90% Literacy Rate: 99.30%
Population 15-64: 62.30% Literacy rate of Males: 99.60%
Population 65+: 4.80% Literacy rate of Females: 99.00%
Population that is Male: 52.50 % Population that is Female: 47.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 64.58 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 69.99 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 61.19 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 68.14 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.10% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 11,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 0
Disease Risk:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -1.50
Nationality: UZBEKISTANI
Ethnic Groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% 
Primary Language: Uzbek
Other Languages: Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Primary Religion: Muslim (mostly Sunnis)
Other Religions: Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
  Uzbekistan Facts |  Republic of Uzbekistan Information | Uzbekistan Statistics  
Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 12,772,292 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 9,992,854 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 641,784 People per year
Expenditures: $200,000,000 USD per year
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.00
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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