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Vietnam Facts

Vietnam Facts | Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics | Viet Nam

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 VIETNAMESE POLITICAL
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
Background: The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The country continues to experience protests from various groups - such as the Protestant Montagnard ethnic minority population of the Central Highlands and the Hoa Hao Buddhists in southern Vietnam over religious persecution. Montagnard grievances also include the loss of land to Vietnamese
 
 
Common Name: Vietnam Local Official Name: Viet Nam
Abbreviated Name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam Official Name: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
Official Script Name: Vietnam Local Common Name: SRV
Former Name: Viet Nam Territory of: Formerly of France
 
Head of State: President Nguyen Minh TRIET
 
Government Type: Communist state
 
Independence: 1945 September 02 (from France)
 
Constitution: 1992 April 15
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 2 September
 
International Organization Participation: ACCT (observer), APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
 
Administrative Divisions: 59 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural) provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dac Lak, Dac Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tay, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: based on communist legal theory and French civil law system
 
Suffrage: 18 years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive branch: chief of state: President Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 June 2006); Vice President Truong My HOA (since 25 July 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 June 2006), Deputy Prime Minister Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 June 2006), and Deputy Prime Minister Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 June 2006) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; election last held 27 June 2006; prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly election results: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Quoc-Hoi (498 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 19 May 2002 (next to be held 2007) election results: percent of vote by party - CPV 90%, other 10% (the 10% are not CPV members but are approved by the CPV to stand for election); seats by party - CPV 447, CPV-approved 51 Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
 
Party Leaders: only party - Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nong Duc MANH]
 
International Disputes: southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; after years of Cambodia claiming Vietnam had moved or destroyed boundary markers, in 2005, after much domestic debate, Cambodia ratified an agreement with Vietnam that settled all but a small portion of the land boundary; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; in 2004, Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commission agrees to erect missing markers in two adjoining provinces; demarcation of the China-Vietnam boundary proceeds slowly and although the maritime boundary delimitation and fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been delayed; China occupies Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; involved in complex dispute with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and possibly Brunei over the Spratly Islands; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands
 
Illicit Drugs: minor producer of opium poppy; probable minor transit point for Southeast Asian heroin; government continues to face domestic opium/heroin/methamphetamine addiction problems despite longstanding crackdowns 
 
 
 VIETNAMESE GEOGRAPHY
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
 
Location of Vietnam: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, alongside China, Laos, and Cambodia
 
Continent: Asia Land Area Total: 329,560 sq km 
Region: South East Asia Land Area Land: 325,360 sq km
Capitol City: Hanoi Land Area Water: 4,200 sq km
      
Latitude: 016 00 N Border Boundary Land: 4,639 km
Longitude: 106 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 3,444 km 
  
Arable Land: 20.14 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 6.93 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 3,144 m Location: Fan Si Pan
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: South China Sea
  
Largest City in Vietnam: Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City Largest City Population: 4,549,000
  
Threatened Species: 270
 
Environmental Issues: logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 30,000
 
Bordering Countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
 
Natural Resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, forests, hydropower
 
Geographical Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
 
Comparative Area of Vietnam: slightly larger than New Mexico
 
Vietnam's Geography: extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
 

 VIETNAMESE CLIMATE
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
 
General Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
 
Natural Hazards: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
 
 
 VIETNAMESE ECONOMY
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
 
Economic Overview: Vietnam is a densely-populated, developing country that in the last 30 years has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally-planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1997 in moving forward from an extremely low level of development and significantly reducing poverty. Growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems in the Vietnamese economy and temporarily allowed opponents of reform to slow progress toward a market-oriented economy. GDP growth averaged 6.8% per year from 1997 to 2004 even against the background of the Asian financial crisis and a global recession, and growth hit 8% in 2005. Since 2001, however, Vietnamese authorities have reaffirmed their commitment to economic liberalization and international integration. They have moved to implement the structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. Vietnam's membership in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and entry into force of the US-Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement in December 2001 have led to even more rapid changes in Vietnam's trade and economic regime. Vietnam's exports to the US doubled in 2002 and again in 2003. Vietnam hopes to become a member of the WTO in 2006. Among other benefits, accession would allow Vietnam to take advantage of the phase out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing for WTO partners on 1 January 2005. Agriculture's share of economic output has continued to shrink, from about 25% in 2000 to 21% in 2005. Deep poverty, defined as a percent of the population living under $1 per day, has declined significantly and is now smaller than that of China, India, and the Philippines. Vietnam is working to promote job creation to keep up with the country's high population growth rate. However, high levels of inflation have prompted Vietnamese authorities to tighten monetary and fiscal policies.
 
 
GDP: $232,200,000,000 USD Currency: Dong
GDP per Capita: $2,800 USD Currency Code: VND
GDP Growth Rate: 8.40 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Dong per US dollar - 15,746 (2005), (2004), 15,510 (2003), 15,280 (2002), 14,725 (2001)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 20.90 % GDP of Industry: 41.00 %
GDP of Services: 38.10 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 8.30 % Population in Poverty: 19.50 %
Unemployment Rate: 2.40 % Tourism: 1,782,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 3.60 % Budget Revenue in USD: $11,640,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 29.90 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $12,950,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 46,200,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 52,000,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 40.74% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 59.26% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 400,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 6,342,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 216,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 6,342,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 600,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 192,600,000,000 cu m
   
External Debt: $20,160,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $2,800,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: paddy rice, coffee, rubber, cotton, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood
 
Primary Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, paper
 
Industrial Growth Rate: 17.20 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $36,880,000,000 USD - machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles
 
Import Partners: China 16.3%, Singapore 12.8%, Taiwan 11.7%, Japan 10.4%, South Korea 9.9%, Thailand 6.8%
 
Export Amount in USD: $32,230,000,000 USD - crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes
 
Export Partners: US 21.2%, Japan 13.3%, Australia 8.4%, China 7.5%, Singapore 5.3%, Germany 5%
 
    
GINI Index: 36.10%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 44,390,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 20.9%, industry: 41%, services: 38.1%
 
  
 VIETNAMESE COMMUNICATIONS
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
 
Radio Broadcast Stations: 101 Number of People with Radios: 8,200,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 6 Number of People with Televisions: 3,570,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 10,124,900 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 4,960,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 3,611 Internet Users: 5,870,000
 
Internet Country Code: .vn Newspapers: 4
Two Letter Country Code: VN Weights and Measures: Metric
Phone Country Code: 84 Electricity Voltage: 240 Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system, but its performance continues to lag behind that of its more modern neighbors domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been substantially increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly international: country code - 84; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
 
  
 VIETNAMESE TRANSPORTATION
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  

   

Highways: 42,167 km Railways: 2,600 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 851 km Waterways: 17,702 km
Airports: 26 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 1 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 42,485,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 0.60 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: total: 267 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,423,936 GRT/2,191,858 DWT by type: bulk carrier 23, cargo 202, chemical tanker 4, container 5, liquefied gas 5, petroleum tanker 24, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Denmark 1) registered in other countries: 17 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Honduras 1, Mongolia 8, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, unknown 2)
 
Ports and Harbors: Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City
 
  
 VIETNAMESE PEOPLE
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
 
Population: 84,402,966 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 16.86 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 245.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 6.22 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.02% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 1.91 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 11,826,457 Population Female 0-14: 10,983,069
Population Male 15-64: 28,055,941 Population Female 15-64: 28,614,553
Population Male 65+: 1,924,562 Population Female 65+: 2,998,384
 
Population 0-14: 27.00% Literacy Rate: 90.30%
Population 15-64: 67.10% Literacy rate of Males: 93.90%
Population 65+: 5.80% Literacy rate of Females: 86.90%
 
Population that is Male: 49.00 % Population that is Female: 51.00%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 70.85 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 25.14 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.05 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 73.85 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.40% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 220,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 9,000
   
Disease Risk: High
 
Diseases: food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague are high risks in some locations animal contact disease: rabies water contact disease: leptospirosis note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US personnel who have close contact with infected birds or poultry
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -0.42
 
Nationality: VIETNAMESE
 
Ethnic Groups: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.7%, Muong 1.5%, Khome 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nun 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% 
 
  
Primary Language: Vietnamese
 
Other Languages: Vietnamese, English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
 
 
Primary Religion: Buddhist
 
Other Religions: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8%
 
  
 VIETNAMESE MILITARY
  Vietnam Facts |  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Information | Vietnam Statistics  
  
Branches: People's Armed Forces: People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (includes People's Navy Command (with naval infantry, coast guard), Air and Air Defense Force (Kon Quan Nhan Dan), Border Defense Command), People's Public Security Forces, Militia Force, Self-Defense Forces
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
 
Manpower Available: 42,772,621 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 33,953,599 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 1,779,733 People per year
 
Expenditures: $650,000,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 2.50
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
 VIETNAMESE RESOURCES
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Vietnam Spa and Resort Directory
 
Vietnam Home Exchanges and Home Swaps
 
Vietnam Vacation Rentals And Holiday Villas
 

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