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Zimbabwe Facts

Zimbabwe Facts | Republic of Zimbabwe Information | Zimbabwe Statistics | Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia

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 ZIMBABWEAN POLITICAL
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Background: The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.
 
 
Common Name: Zimbabwe Local Official Name: Zimbabwe
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Zimbabwe Official Name: Zimbabwe
Official Script Name: Zimbabwe Local Common Name: Zimbabwe
Former Name: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia Territory of: NA
 
Head of State: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE
 
Government Type: parliamentary democracy
 
Independence: 1980 April 18 (from UK)
 
Constitution: 1979 December 21
 
National Holiday: Independence Day, 18 April
 
International Organization Participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
 
Administrative Divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
 
Dependent Areas: NA
 
Legal System: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
 
Suffrage: 18 years of age years
 
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 9-11 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006); co-vice presidents appointed by the president election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9% Legislative Branch: unicameral parliament, called House of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected by popular vote for five-year terms, 12 nominated by the president, 10 occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their peers, and 8 occupied by provincial governors appointed by the president) elections: last held 24-25 June 2000 (next to be held NA 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%, ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties 0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63, MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court; High Court
 
Party Leaders: Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [leader NA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Paul SIWELA]
 
International Disputes: NA
 
Illicit Drugs: transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European markets 
 
 
 ZIMBABWEAN GEOGRAPHY
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Location of Zimbabwe: Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
 
Continent: Africa Land Area Total: 390,580 sq km 
Region: Southern African Land Area Land: 386,670 sq km
Capitol City: Harare Land Area Water: 3,910 sq km
      
Latitude: 020 00 S Border Boundary Land: 3,066 km
Longitude: 030 00 E Border Boundary Coastline: 0 km 
  
Arable Land: 8.00 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 1.00 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
  
Highest Elevation: 2,592 m Location: Inyangani
Lowest Elevation: 162 m Location: junction of the Runde and Save rivers
  
Largest City in Zimbabwe: Harare Harare Largest City Population: 1,686,000
  
Threatened Species: 38
 
Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
 
Environmental Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Irrigated Land: 1,170
 
Bordering Countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
 
Natural Resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
 
Geographical Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
 
Comparative Area of Zimbabwe: slightly larger than Montana
 
Zimbabwe's Geography: landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
 

 ZIMBABWEAN CLIMATE
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General Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
 
Natural Hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
 
 
 ZIMBABWEAN ECONOMY
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Economic Overview: The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles to consolidate earlier moves to develop a market-oriented economy. Its involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, has already drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Badly needed support from the IMF has been suspended because of the country's failure to meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999, to 60% in 2000, and to 100% by yearend 2001. The economy is being steadily weakened by excessive government deficits, AIDS, and rampant inflation. The government's land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, has derailed the commercial sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs. Distribution of income is extremely unequal.
 
 
GDP: $28,000,000,000 USD Currency: Zimbabwean dollar
GDP per Capita: $2,450 USD Currency Code: ZWD
GDP Growth Rate: -6.50 %
  
Currency Exchange Rate History: Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 54.9451 (December 2001), 54.9451 (2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142 (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906 (1997)
  
  
GDP of Agriculture: 11.00 % GDP of Industry: 14.00 %
GDP of Services: 75.00 %  
   
Inflation Rate: 100.00 % Population in Poverty: 60.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 60.00 % Tourism: 2,103,000.00 visitors each year
   
Consumption by lowest 10%: 1.80 % Budget Revenue in USD: $2,500,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 46.90 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $2,600,000,000 USD
   
Electricity Production: 6,425,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 10,475,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 4,500,000,000 kWh

Electricity Production by Source:
 
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 53.31% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 46.69% Other Electricity Production: 0.00%
   
Oil Production: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 0 cu m
Oil Consumption: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 0 cu m
Oil Exports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 0 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 0 cu m
   
External Debt: $5,000,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $200,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
   
Agricultural Products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs
 
Primary Industries: mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
 
Industrial Growth Rate: -10.00 %
  
  
Import Amount in USD: $1,500,000,000 USD - machinery and transport equipment 34%, other manufactures 18%, chemicals 17%, fuels 11%
 
Import Partners: South Africa 46.3%, UK 7.2%, Germany 2.5%, US 2.8%, Japan 2.5%
 
Export Amount in USD: $2,100,000,000 USD - tobacco 30%, gold 11%, ferroalloys 9%, textile/clothing 3%
 
Export Partners: South Africa 12.1%, UK 8.5%, Japan 7.7%, Germany 6.1%, China 5.4%
 
    
GINI Index: 56.80%
 
Labor Force Number of People: 5,500,000
 
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10%
 
  
 ZIMBABWEAN COMMUNICATIONS
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Radio Broadcast Stations: 28 Number of People with Radios: 1,140,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 16 Number of People with Televisions: 370,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 212,000 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 111,000
 
Internet Service Providers: 6 Internet Users: 30,000
 
Internet Country Code: .zw Newspapers: 19
Two Letter Country Code: ZW Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: +263 Electricity Voltage: Volts
  
Telephone Systems: general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
 
  
 ZIMBABWEAN TRANSPORTATION
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Highways: 8,692 km Railways: 3,077 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 212 km Waterways: 0 km
Airports: 17 Heliports: 0
 
Motor Vehicles: 51 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 18,203,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.60 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  
Merchant Marines: NA
 
Ports and Harbors: Binga, Kariba
 
  
 ZIMBABWEAN PEOPLE
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Population: 11,376,676 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 24.59 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 33.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 24.06 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 0.05% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 3.21 babies born per woman
 
Population Male 0-14: 2,178,073 Population Female 0-14: 2,128,287
Population Male 15-64: 3,376,850 Population Female 15-64: 3,268,315
Population Male 65+: 213,286 Population Female 65+: 211,865
 
Population 0-14: 37.90% Literacy Rate: 85.00%
Population 15-64: 58.40% Literacy rate of Males: 90.00%
Population 65+: 3.70% Literacy rate of Females: 80.00%
 
Population that is Male: 51.50 % Population that is Female: 48.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 36.50 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 62.97 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 37.87 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 35.10 years
 
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 25.06% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 1,500,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 160,000
   
Disease Risk:
 
Diseases:
 
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: 0.00
 
Nationality: ZIMBABWEAN
 
Ethnic Groups: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1% 
 
  
Primary Language: English
 
Other Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
 
 
Primary Religion: syncretic
 
Other Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
 
  
 ZIMBABWEAN MILITARY
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Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: NA years
 
Manpower Available: 3,057,381 People
 
Manpower Fit to Serve: 1,898,383 People
 
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 0 People per year
 
Expenditures: $350,600,000 USD per year
 
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 3.80
 
 
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.
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