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Mixtec Language Facts and Information

Information About Mixtec Language

Mixtec language topics and discussion
Mixtec speakers in the Phrasebase community
 
Extinct: no
Family: Other
Branch: Oto-Manguean
Continent: North America
Country: Mexico
 
Region: ALACATLATZALA: Eastern Guerrero, towns of Alacatlatzala, Ocuapa, Potoichan. There are tiny communities in Acapulco, Guerrero; Cuautla, Morelos; and Culiacán, Sinaloa. ALCOZAUCA: Eastern Guerrero, near Metlatonoc. AMOLTEPEC: Oaxaca, western edge of Sola de Vega District, Santiago Amoltepec Municipio, and settlements (Las Cuevas, La Mesilla, El Armadillo, El Mamey, El Zapote, Colonia de Jesús, Barranca Oscura). APASCO Y APOALA: Oaxaca, 40 km. north northwest of Nochixtlán. Includes towns of Santa Catarina Ocotlán, San Miguel Chicagua, San Miguel Chicahuastepec, Jocotepec, Santa María Apasco, San Miguel Huautla, Nduayaco, and 2 others. ATATLÁHUCA: West central Oaxaca, towns of San Esteban Atatláhuca, Santa Lucía Monteverde, and Santa Catarina Yosonotú. AYUTLA: Guerrero, Ayutla. CACALOXTEPEC: Oaxaca, town of Santiago Cacaloxtepec. CHAYUCO: Southwest Oaxaca. CHAZUMBA: Oaxaca, close to the Puebla border, with a few in Puebla. Near Southern Puebla Mixteco. The largest group speaking Mixteco is in Santiago Chazumba. Some other villages with speakers are San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec (in Oaxaca), Zapotitlán, Petlalcingo, and Totoltepec de Guerrero (in Puebla). CHIGMACATITLÁN: Puebla, straight south of Puebla city, about half way to Oaxaca border. Includes Santa Catarina Tlaltemplan. COATZOSPAN: Oaxaca. CUYAMECALCO: Oaxaca, Cuyamecalco, San Miguel Santa Flor. DIUXI-TILANTONGO: Oaxaca, 20 towns and villages in the Diuxi and Tilantongo area, Oaxaca City, Puebla City, Mexico City. HUITEPEC: Oaxaca, 60 km. west of Zaachila, 25 km. southwest of Peñoles, Huitepec Municipio, towns of San Antonio Huitepec, San Francisco Yucucundo, and San Francisco Infiernillo. ITUNDUJIA: Oaxaca, Putla District, 10 km. southwest of Yosondua, 40 km. southeast of Putla. Most in Morelos and Guerrero villages. IXTAYUTLA: Oaxaca, Jamiltepec District, Santiago Ixtayutla and about 15 settlements (Nuyuku, Xiniyuva, La Humedad, Pueblo Viejo, Musko, Yukuyaa, Llano Verde, Yomuche, Carasul, Frutillo). JAMILTEPEC: Southwest Oaxaca. JUXTLAHUACA: Oaxaca, central Santiago Juxtlahuaca, towns of San Sebastian Tecomaxtlahuaca, San Miguel Tlacotepec, Santos Reyes Tepejillo, Santa María Tindú, and Santa María Yucunicoco. Probably a few thousand in San Quintín Valley, Baja California. JUXTLAHUACA OESTE: Oaxaca-Guerrero border due west of Juxtlahuaca.In Oaxaca: San Martín Peras is at 17" 21" N Lat, 98" 14" W Long. Other municipios: Río Frijol, Santa Cruz Yucucani, San Jose Yoxocaño (all towns in these municipios). In Guerrero: Malvabisco, Rancho Limón, Río Aguacate, Boca de Mamey. MAGDALENA PEÑASCO: Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, municipios of Santa María Magdalena Peñasco, San Cristobal Amoltepec, and San Agustín Tlacotepec. Also includes the town of San Mateo Peñasco. METLATONOC: Eastern Guerrero, Metlatonoc, San Rafael, and towns further south. MITLATONGO: Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, Santiago Mitlatongo, Santa Cruz Mitlatongo. MIXTEPEC: Oaxaca, San Juan Mixtepec, and probably a few thousand in the San Quintín Valley of Baja California. Also spoken in USA. NOCHIXTLÁN SURESTE: Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, 30 km. along highway 190, starting 20 km. southeast of Nochixtlán, four turn-offs from highway 190. Well graded gravel road. Main towns are Santo Domingo Nuxaá, San Andres Nuxiño, Santa Inez Zarogoza. Also Ojo de Agua Nuxaá, El Oro, La Herradura, La Unión Zaragoza, Reforma, La Paz, and other hamlets. OAXACA NOROESTE: Northwest Oaxaca, towns of Santos Reyes Yucuná, Guadalupe Portezuelo, and San Simón Zahuatlán. OCOTEPEC: West central Oaxaca. PEÑOLES: West central Oaxaca. Santa María Peñoles municipio, Monteflor, San Mateo Tepantepec, Estetla and Cholula agencias; Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipio; and Huazolotipac agencia in Huitepec municipio, Zaachila District, and San Mateo Sindihui town. PINOTEPA NACIONAL: Oaxaca, around Jamiltepec. PUEBLA SUR: Oaxaca, southwestern Puebla, town of Zapotitlán Palmas. SAN JUAN COLORADO: Oaxaca. SAN JUAN TEITA: Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, 30 km. southeast of Tlaxiaco, towns of San Juan Teita, San Agustín Tlacotepec. SAN MIGUEL EL GRANDE: West central Oaxaca. SAN MIGUEL PIEDRAS: Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. SANTA MARÍA ZACATEPEC: Oaxaca, 45 km. south of Putla, on paved road from Tlaxiaco to Pinotepa Nacional. Towns of Tapanco, Nejapa, Atotonilco. SILACAYOAPAN: Oaxaca, including towns of Santo Domingo Tonala (5,704 in 1990 census) and San Jorge Nuchita (3,052), and Tijuana. SINDIHUI: West central Oaxaca. SINICAHUA: Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Antonio Sinicahua, Siniyucu, and settlements of Sinicahua Municipio. SOYALTEPEC: Oaxaca, Teposcolula District, village of San Bartolo Soyaltepec and Guadalupe Gabilera. TACAHUA: Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, east of Yosondúa, southeast of San Miguel el Grande. TAMAZOLA: Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, San Juan Tamazola. TEZOATLÁN: Oaxaca, Tezoatlán area, southwest of Huajuapan, about 40 to 50 km. off the highway by gravel road; 25 miles south of Cacaloxtepec; towns of Yucuquimi de Ocampo, San Andres Yutatío, Yucuñuti de Benito Juárez, San Juan Diquiyú, San Marcos de Garzón, San Martín del Río, Santa Catarina Yotandu, San Isidro de Zaragoza, San Valentín. TIDAÁ: Oaxaca. TIJALTEPEC: Oaxaca, southeastern Tlaxiaco District, towns of San Pablo Tijaltepec, Santa María Yosoyúa, and all their communities. TLAXIACO NORTE: Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Juan Ñumí and Santiago Nundichi municipios; Teposcolula District, San Antonino Monte Verde and San Sebastián Nicananduta municipios. TLAXIACO SUROESTE: Oaxaca. TUTUTEPEC: Oaxaca, 10 km. north of coastal highway, on dirt road that turns off pavement 40 km. southeast of Jamiltepec. Includes San Pedro Tututepec, Santa María Acatepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, other towns and villages. YOLOXOCHITL: Southeastern Guerrero, San Luís Acatlán Municipio, just south of Tlapaneco, and about half way between Metlatonoc and Ayutla Mixteco; town of Yoloxochitl and possibly a few speakers in Cuanacastitlán. YOSONDÚA: Oaxaca. YUCUAÑE: Oaxaca, northeastern Tlaxiaco District, 30 km. southeast of Tlaxiaco, town of San Bartolome Yucuañe. Many work in D.F. and USA. YUTANDUCHI: Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Yutanduchi de Guerrero.
Countries Where Spoken: ALACATLATZALA: 18,000 to 20,000 including 6,000 to 7,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Over 300,000 speakers in all Mixtecan languages (1995). ALCOZAUCA: 10,000 speakers, including 4,000 monolinguals (1994 SIL) in 14 villages. AMOLTEPEC: 5,000 (1992 SIL) including 1,200 monolinguals (1990 census). APASCO Y APOALA: 7,866 speakers, including 6,728 monolinguals (1990 census). ATATLÁHUCA: 8,300 including 435 monolinguals (1995 census). AYUTLA: 8,500 including 3,000 monolinguals (1990 census). CACALOXTEPEC: 848 speakers including 100 monolinguals (1990 census). 1,254 in the ethnic group. CHAYUCO: 30,000 (1977 SIL). CHAZUMBA: 2,477 speakers including 32 monolinguals (1995 census). CHIGMACATITLÁN: 1,600 (1990 census). COATZOSPAN: 5,000 speakers, including 500 monolinguals (1994 SIL). CUYAMECALCO: 2,600 speakers, including 143 monolinguals, 660 speakers in San Miguel, including 72 monolinguals (1994 SIL). DIUXI-TILANTONGO: 8,500 including 300 monolinguals (1990 census). HUITEPEC: 4,000 including over 200 monolinguals, and 2,000 in the town of Huitepec (1990 census). ITUNDUJIA: 1,082 speakers including 33 monolinguals (1990 census). IXTAYUTLA: 5,500 speakers, including 2,800 monolinguals or more (1990 census). JAMILTEPEC: 10,000 (1983 SIL). JUXTLAHUACA: 16,000 speakers, including 5,500 monolinguals (1990 census). JUXTLAHUACA OESTE: 25,000 including 7,000 in San Martín Peras, 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San Jose Yoxocaño (1992 SIL). 7,000 monolinguals (1990 census). MAGDALENA PEÑASCO: 4,200 speakers, including over 1,050 monolinguals (1990 census). METLATONOC: 42,000 to 44,000 including 14,000 to 15,000 monolinguals (1995 census). MITLATONGO: 1,800 speakers (1994 SIL). MIXTEPEC: 12,000 including 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census). Population total both countries 12,000. NOCHIXTLÁN SURESTE: 7,000 including 4,075 monolinguals (1990 census). OAXACA NOROESTE: 2,500 including 2,195 monolinguals (1990 census). OCOTEPEC: 5,000 to 8,000 (1982 SIL). PEÑOLES: 12,000 to 14,000 (1998 J. and M. Daly), including 2,000 monolinguals (1990 census). PINOTEPA NACIONAL: 20,000 including 2,200 monolinguals (1990 census). PUEBLA SUR: 1,330 speakers including 386 monolinguals (1990 census). SAN JUAN COLORADO: 13,500 including 3,100 monolinguals (1990 census). SAN JUAN TEITA: 550 (1994 SIL). SAN MIGUEL EL GRANDE: 14,453 including 10,000 in other dialects, 4,453 in Chalcatongo, 800 monolinguals in other dialects, 226 in Chalcatongo (1990 census). SAN MIGUEL PIEDRAS: 448 speakers out of a population of 1,123 (1990 census). SANTA MARÍA ZACATEPEC: 6,000 including 3,000 in Zacatepec and 3,000 in surrounding rancherías and villages (1992 E. Farris SIL). SILACAYOAPAN: 15,000 to 17,000 including 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census). SINDIHUI: 138 speakers (1990 census). SINICAHUA: 1,300 speakers, including 400 monolinguals or more (1990 census). SOYALTEPEC: 322 speakers out of 926 population (1990 census). TACAHUA: 585 speakers, including 78 monolinguals (1990 census). TAMAZOLA: 2,500 (1990 census). TEZOATLÁN: 6,200 including 850 monolinguals (1990 census). TIDAÁ: 550 speakers out of a population of about 900 (1990 census). TIJALTEPEC: 3,300 to 3,500 speakers, including 800 to 900 monolinguals or more (1990 census). TLAXIACO NORTE: 14,000 (1990 census). TLAXIACO SUROESTE: 6,000 including 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). TUTUTEPEC: 817 speakers out of 30,046 in the ethnic group (1990 census). YOLOXOCHITL: 2,540 speakers (1994 SIL). YOSONDÚA: 5,000 including 240 monolinguals (1990 census). YUCUAÑE: 515 including 88 monolinguals (1990 census). YUTANDUCHI: 1,800 including 38 monolinguals (1990 census).
Countries Where Official: Mexico
   
Native Speakers: 300,000
Speakers Total: 300,000
  
Phrasebase members who speak Mixteco at a native level: 0
Phrasebase members who speak Mixteco at a conversational level: 0
Phrasebase members primary language they are trying to learn is Mixteco: 0
Phrasebase members secondary language they are trying to learn is Mixteco: 0
  
Three Letter Code: MIM
Alternative Names: MIXTEC, HIGHLAND GUERRERO MIXTECO, ALACATLATZALA MIXTEC, ALOCOCAUCA MIXTEC, WESTERN SOLA DE VEGA MIXTEC, AMOLTEPEC MIXTEC, NORTHERN NOCHIXTLÁN MIXTECO, SANTIAGO APOALA MIXTECO, CHOCHO MIXTECO, APOALA MIXTEC, APASCO MIXTEC, SAN ESTEBAN ATATLÁHUCA MIXTECO,
Dialects:
 
Summary: ALACATLATZALA: 65% to 85% intelligibility with Metlatonoc. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 19%, 3 1%, 4 0%, 5 0%. They switch to Spanish when trying to communicate with people from Silacayoapan. About 20% (nearly all men) speak some Spanish for trade, travel, or work outside the area. Less than 5% are bilingual in Tlapaneco or Náhuatl resulting from intermarriage. Mixteco is the language of choice in nearly all domains; at home, in local shops, among officials in the town hall for business, for teaching in the classroom even though materials are in Spanish. High appreciation for Mixteco among speakers. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Coicoyán (San Martín Peras). Dictionary. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 30%. Desire for literacy in either language is somewhat limited. Some adaptation of materials for Potoichan may be needed. Scrub and pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,076 to 2,153 meters. Bible portions 1990-1998. ALCOZAUCA: 92% intelligibility of Metlatonoc. Metlatonoc has 70% intelligibility of Xochapa. A separate language from Metlatonoc. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1997. AMOLTEPEC: 63% intelligibility of Northeastern Jamiltepec, 52% of Western Jamiltepec, 46% of Yosondúa, 42% of Nuyoo, 32% of Zacatepec, 25% of San Juan Colorado, 20% of Jamiltepec, 15% of Chayuco. Speakers in Amoltepec center are bilingual in Spanish, but those in the outlying rancherías are quite monolingual. Schools through 6th grade. Many men work outside the area. 4,600 feet. APASCO Y APOALA: 26% intelligibility with Southern Puebla Mixteco (closest). Good attitudes toward the language; desire for literature. Bible portions 1966. ATATLÁHUCA: 68% intelligibility of Yosondúa. San Agustín Tlacotepec may need separate literature (69% intelligibility of San Esteban; closest). Santa Lucía Monteverde Mixteco may also need separate literature. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 50%, 1 30%, 2 15%, 3 5%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Investigation needed: intelligibility with San Augustín Tlacotepec. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 3,000 meters. NT 1973. AYUTLA: Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 75% to 100%. Coastal. Bible portions 1970-1972. CACALOXTEPEC: 59% intelligibility with Silacayoapan (closest). Bilingualism in Spanish. Most monolinguals are over 50. CHAYUCO: 69% intelligibility with Western Jamiltepec. NT 1979. CHAZUMBA: A distinct language. 65% inherent intelligibility of Xayacatlán, 53% of Cacaloxtepec, 24% of Chigmecatitlán, 19% of Cuyamecalco (Coatzospan). 75% of the speakers are over 50 years old. 75% of the speakers are scattered over a large area, with most villages having fewer than 15% of the population able to speak Mixteco. A large percentage of the populations of each village no longer speak Mixteco, but speak Spanish. Investigation needed: bilingual proficiency in Spanish. CHIGMACATITLÁN: 23% intelligibility with Chazumba (Southern Puebla; closest). An "island" of Mixteco surrounded by Popoloca and Náhuatl. Low intelligibility with all Mixteco; very different. A lot of bilingualism in Spanish. 217 speakers over 50 years old, 273 monolinguals (1990). 4,000 to 5,000 feet. COATZOSPAN: 25% intelligibility with Chazumba. Cuyamecalco is close, but inherent intelligibility is inadequate. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are Women: 0 90%, 1 5%, 2 2%, 3 1%, 4 1%, 5 1%; Men: 0 10%, 1 61%, 2 25%, 3 2%, 4 1%, 5 1%. Mazateco also used. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Pastoralists, swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 1,000 to 2,000 meters. Bible portions 1971-1978. CUYAMECALCO: San Juan Coatzospan is close, but inherent intelligibility is inadequate. Bilingualism in Spanish. 17 monolinguals are between 5 and 14 years old (1994). Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Pastoralists, swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 1,000 to 2,000 meters. DIUXI-TILANTONGO: 37% intelligibility with Peñoles (Eastern); closer to Nuxaá. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 <20%, 1 <30%, 2 <20%, 3 <30%, 4 <3%, 5 <1%. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics, stems are CVCV or CVV. Savannah, scrub forest. Mountain mesa, slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 2,000 to 3,200 meters. NT in press (1999). HUITEPEC: 77% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 75% of Chalcatongo, 52% of Peñoles, 20% of Yosondúa, 8% of Tilantongo. Spoken in most homes in Huitepec town; more so in rural areas. Secondary school. Pine forest. Mountain slope. 7,000 to 8,000 feet. ITUNDUJIA: 60% intelligibility of Yosondua, 59% of Chalcatongo, 25% of San Martín Peras, 15% of Amoltepec, 12% of Zacatepec, 10% of San Esteban Atatlahuca, Nuyoo, 0% of Ixtayutla. Bilingualism in Spanish. Nearly all of the monolinguals and over half of the speakers are over 50 years old. IXTAYUTLA: 79% intelligibility of Amoltepec, 59% of Chayuco, 49% of Jamiltepec, 40% of San Juan Colorado, 30% of Zacatepec. School through 6th grade in Ixtayutla. Some settlements have schools. Subsistence agriculturalists: bananas, beans, maize; sell rope and goats. 1,800 feet. Christian, traditional religion. JAMILTEPEC: Intelligibility and sociolinguistic attitudes make separate literature from Chayucu advisable. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 25%, 1 50%, 2 20%, 3 3%, 4 2%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Semi-tropical. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 750 to 1,000 feet. NT 1983. JUXTLAHUACA: 84% intelligibility of Silacayoapan, 80% of Yucucani and San Miguel Peras, 63% of Santa Cruz Mixtepec, 48% of Coicoyán, 37% of Tezoatlán, 18% of Zacatepec, 10% of Ñumí. Secondary school. Many work in Culiacán or the Usa. Little tillable land. Desert. Mountain slope. 4,000 to 6,000 feet. JUXTLAHUACA OESTE: 82% intelligibility of Metlatonoc, 80% of Silacayoapan, 65% of Juxtlahuaca, 19% of Cuatzoquitengo, 16% of Zacatepec. Very little comprehension or use of Spanish. There is a primary school in San Martín. Many work in Culiacán during the cold months. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists. 6,500 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. MAGDALENA PEÑASCO: Speakers have 89% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec, 76% of Tijaltepec and Sinicahua, 73% of San Miguel el Grande, 72% of Tlacotepec, 68% of Ocotepec, 64% of Nduaxico, 58% of Yucuañe. A distinct language, different from Santiago Amoltepec Mixteco. There is pride in the language and culture. Secondary school. Investigation needed: intelligibility with San Cristóbal Amoltepec, San Agustín Tlacotepec. Bilingual primary school. Agriculturalists: maize, weavers: tenates, hats. 6,600 feet. METLATONOC: 90% or higher intelligibility among nearby towns, but only 50% with most in the Alacatlatzala area. Xochapa Mixteco is a separate language. Investigation needed to determine if Chilistlahuaca and Ojo de Pescado are different. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1959-1998. MITLATONGO: 70% intelligibility of Yutanduchi, 56% of Peñoles, 54% of San Juan Tamazola, 43% of Teita, 10% of Nuxaa, 8% of Diuxi. Children are learning Spanish, but it is limited. All children and adults speak Mixteco. Secondary school. Some men work outside, and a few in the USA. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: maize, beans, anona (chirimoya, ice cream fruit), lima beans, dates. 7,000 feet. MIXTEPEC: Distinct from other Mixteco. Limited bilingualism in Spanish. Bible portions 1974. NOCHIXTLÁN SURESTE: 60% to 70% intelligibility with Peñoles Mixteco. Speakers understand little of San Miguel Piedras or San Pedro Tidaá Mixteco. They speak the language in the home. Spanish is preferred in Santa Inez Zaragoza; elsewhere Mixteco is preferred. Dictionary. VSO, tonal. Literacy rate in first language: 5% to 10%. Literacy rate in second language: 75% to 100%. Pine forest in highest areas, mixed deciduous forest, scrub in lower areas. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,800 to 2,500 meters. OAXACA NOROESTE: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 20%, 1 35%, 2 40%, 3 0%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Tonal, SVO, short words, clitics. Sparse to barren scrub or deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,500 to 1,800 meters. OCOTEPEC: 80% intelligibility with Ñumí (Northwestern Tlaxiaco). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 40%, 1 30%, 2 25%, 3 5%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Investigation needed: intelligibility with dialect. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 2,500 meters. NT 1977. PEÑOLES: 14% intelligibility with Chalcatongo. Nuxaa has 30% intelligibility with Peñoles. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 25%, 1 20%, 2 30%, 3 20%, 4 4%, 5 1%. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 40%. Deciduous, pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists, sedentary pastoralists. 1,500 to 2,600 meters. NT 1979. PINOTEPA NACIONAL: Investigation needed to determine how different Huazolititlán and Don Luís Pinotepa are. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 23%, 1 24%, 2 22%, 3 13%, 4 10%, 5 8%. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Scrub forest. Coastal plains. Swidden agriculturalists. 300 to 500 meters. NT 1980. PUEBLA SUR: 53% intelligibility with Cacaloxtepec (Huajuapan; closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 0%, 1 5%, 2 20%, 3 60%, 4 10%, 5 5%. Most children under 16 have limited or no ability in Mixteco and are monolingual in Spanish. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Mountain slope. Sedentary pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists. 1,800 to 2,000 meters. NT 1978. SAN JUAN COLORADO: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 35%, 2 5%, 3 0%, 4 0%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics, affixes. Semi-tropical. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 500 to 700 feet. NT 1994. SAN JUAN TEITA: May be closest to Diuxi Mixteco, but not close enough to any other Mixteco for adequate comprehension. All ages and sexes speak some Spanish; some women have only basic knowledge, and some young people and men are very fluent. In San Agustín Tlacotepec all but older people prefer and speak Spanish. All ages. Nearly everyone prefers Mixteco for family and informal usage. Literacy rate in second language: Possibly 40% in Spanish. Tropical forest, scrub forest desert. Mountain valley. Peasant agriculturalists, palm and cactus fiber gathering. 1,500 to 2,500 meters. SAN MIGUEL EL GRANDE: 86% intelligibility with Yosondua (closest). Investigation needed: intelligibility with dialects. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,846 to 3,077 meters. NT 1951, out of print. SAN MIGUEL PIEDRAS: 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 29% of Soyaltepec, Yosondúa, 18% of Peñoles, 15% of Chalcatongo, 13% of Tilantongo, 11% of Chicahua. Bilingualism in Spanish. A few speakers are in the lower age categories, but most are over 50 years old. SANTA MARÍA ZACATEPEC: 64% intelligibility with Ixtayutla (closest) 63% with Jicaltepec (Western Jamiltepec Mixteco), 40% to 50% with Metlatonoc, 25% to 30% with Yoloxochitl. Called "Tacuates" by people in the area including Indians, which can be offensive depending on context and other signals. Literacy rate in first language: 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 30%. 4,000 feet. Bible portions 1995. SILACAYOAPAN: 70% intelligibility with Metlatonoc, 68% with Santa María Peras. Cuatzoquitengo may need separate literature; testing incomplete; also Guadalupe Portezuelo (65% intelligibility with Silacayoapan). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 20%, 1 40%, 2 28%, 3 10%, 4 2%, 5 0%. Grammar. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Desert, scrub forest. Mountain mesa. Swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 2,100 to 3,000 meters. NT 1999. SINDIHUI: Distinct from Yutanduchi. All over 50 years old (1990). Nearly extinct. SINICAHUA: Speakers have 75% intelligibility of Yosoyúa, 73% of Ocotepec, 72% of San Miguel el Grande, and 51% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixteco). A distinct language. Speakers have extremely limited ability in Spanish. Primary and secondary schools. Agriculturalists: maize, wheat, peas. 8,600 feet. SOYALTEPEC: 28% intelligibility of Tilantongo, 25% of Ñumi, 23% of Apoala. Bilingualism in Spanish. All ages in some places. Children are learning Mixteco in Guadalupe. Investigation needed: bilingual proficiency. TACAHUA: 70% of the monolinguals are over 50 years old, none under 35. TAMAZOLA: Bilingualism in Spanish. TEZOATLÁN: 70% to 80% intelligibility with Silacayoapan and Atenango. Some are bilingual in Spanish. All ages. Speakers have pride in the language. Swidden agriculturalists: maize; basket weavers. Bible portions 1992. TIDAÁ: 60% intelligibility with Peñoles (Eastern); closest. Nuxaa is close. Bilingualism in Spanish. 2 monolinguals are over 50. Most speakers are over 40. 13% of children 5 to 15 years old are speakers (1990). Other children are not learning Mixteco. Investigation needed: bilingual proficiency in Spanish. TIJALTEPEC: Speakers have 89% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande and Yosoyúa, 82% of San Mateo Peñasco, 81% of Sinicahua and 66% of Teita. A distinct language. Primary schools, 1 secondary school. Some work outside in Veracruz or the USA. Investigation needed: intelligibility with San Felipe Tindaco, Sta. Catarina Yujía, Sta. María Yosoyúa. Agriculturalists: maize, wheat, beans, chilacayote squash. 7,500 feet. TLAXIACO NORTE: Literacy rate in first language: 20%. Literacy rate in second language: 40%. Bible portions 1995. TLAXIACO SUROESTE: 54% intelligibility with Atatláhuca (closest). Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Bible portions 1999. TUTUTEPEC: 61% intelligibility with Ixtayutla (closest), 50% with Pinotepa. Bilingualism in Spanish. There are children and 2 monolingual speakers. Most speakers are over 50 years old (1990). Most vigorous in Acatepec, but young people not using Mixteco. 2,000 feet or less. YOLOXOCHITL: Metlatonoc has 35% intelligibility of Yoloxochitl, and Ayutla has 30% intelligibility of it. There is a bilingual primary school with Spanish. Mixteco used for everything except speaking to outsiders. Coastal. Agriculturalists: maize, beans, tropical fruits, jamaica; embroidery. 1,600 feet. YOSONDÚA: 70% intelligibility with San Miguel el Grande and Chalcatongo (closest). San Mateo Sindihui has 19% intelligibility with Yosondúa. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 15%, 1 20%, 2 35%, 3 20%, 4 5%, 5 5%. Investigation needed: intelligibility with San Mateo Sindihui. Gallery, pine forest. Mountain mesa, slope. Peasant agriculturalists. NT 1988. YUCUAÑE: May be closest to Diuxi Mixteco, but not close enough to any other Mixteco for adequate comprehension. Speakers have 87% intelligibility of San Cristobal Amoltepec, 86% of Yosoyúa, 85% of Magdalena Peñasco, 64% of Teita, 60% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixteco), 56% of Tlacotepec. 2 dialects in different halves of San Agustín Tlacotepec. All ages and sexes speak some Spanish; some women have only basic knowledge, and some young people and men are very fluent. In San Agustín Tlacotepec all but older people prefer and speak Spanish. All ages. Nearly everyone prefers Mixteco for family and informal usage. Primary and secondary schools. Literacy rate in second language: Possibly 40% in Spanish. Tropical forest, scrub forest desert. Mountain valley. Peasant agriculturalists: maize; palm and cactus fiber gathering. 6,000 feet. YUTANDUCHI: 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 48% of San Juan Tamazola, 20% of Yosondúa and Soyaltepec, 36% to 18% of Peñoles, 15% of Chalcatongo, 13% of Tilantongo. Bilingualism in Spanish. Primary and secondary school. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists; export palm leaf; make rope and woven mats. 5,000 feet.
 

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