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Quechua Language Facts and Information

Information About Quechua Language

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Extinct: no
Family: Other
Branch: Andean-Equitorial
Continent: South America
Country: Peru
 
Region: ANCASH, CHIQUIAN: Southeast Ancash Department, Bolognesi Province, Chiquian District. ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, NORTHERN: East Ancash Department, Pomabamba to San Luis, and Huacrachuco in northwest Huánuco Department. May include a small part of the northern Marañon area. ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, SOUTHERN: East Ancash Department, Chavín to San Luis to Llamellín in East Ancash Department, and Huacaybamba, Huacrachuco, San Buenaventura, and Pinra in northwest Huánuco Department. Includes much of southern Marañon. ANCASH, CORONGO: Northern Ancash Department, Sihuas and Corongo areas. ANCASH, HUAYLAS: Central Ancash Department, provinces of Huaraz, Carhuaz, Caraz; in the Callejón de Huaylas. APURIMAC: Ayamaraes, Chuquibambilla, and Anda provinces. ANCASH, SIHUAS: Ancash Department. CAJAMARCA: Cajamarca, Chetilla, and Los Baños districts. AREQUIPA-LA UNION: Arequipa Department, La Unión Province, Cotahuasi District. AYACUCHO: Southwestern Ayacucho region. CHACHAPOYAS: Chachapoyas and Luya provinces, Amazonas Department. CHILEAN: Northern second region. CLASSICAL: Central Peru. CUZCO: Central Cuzco, Arequipa regions. HUANUCO, HUALLAGA: Northeast Huánuco Department, including the city of Huánuco. HUANUCO, HUAMALIES-NORTHERN DOS DE MAYO: North central Huanuco Department. HUANUCO, PANAO: East central Huánuco Department. LAMBAYEQUE: Lambayeque region, Inkawasi, Kañaris, and Miracosta districts, and the communities of Penachí and Santa Lucía, and in adjacent areas of other departments (Cajamarca, Piura). MARGOS-YAROWILCA-LAURICOCHA: Southwest and south central Huánuco Department, Districts of La Unión, Ripan, Huallanca, Sillapata, Yanas, Obas, Chuquis, Chupan, Cahuac, Chavinillo, Chacabamba, Jacas Chico, Rondos, San Francisco, Jivia, Banos, Queropalca. NORTH BOLIVIAN: Apolo region, La Paz Department. Also spoken in Peru. NORTH JUNIN: Northern Junín Department, districts of Junín, Carhuamayo, Ondores, San Pedro de Cajas, southeast of Pasco. NORTH LIMA, CAJATAMBO: Northeast Lima Department, especially rural Oyon, Pachangara, Andajes, Maráy, Copa, Huanacapón, Jucul, Cajatambo; Pacaraos in east central Lima Department. NORTHWEST JUJUY: Northwest Jujuy Province, near the Bolivian border. PACAROAS: East central Lima Department, Pacaroas village. PASCO, SANTA ANA DE TUSI: Pasco Department, west of Huariaca. PASCO-YANAHUANCA: Pasco Department, sparsely populated high country and more densely populated valleys, districts of Yanahuanca, Villcabamba, Tapoc, Chacayan, Paucar, San Pedro de Pillao, Goyllarisquizqa. PASTAZA, SOUTHERN: Northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga rivers, and along the Urituyacu. PUNO: Puno Department and adjacent areas. SAN MARTIN: San Martín, Sisa, Lamas and other districts, and along parts of the Ucayali River. SAN RAFAEL-HUARIACA: Ambo, southern Huánuco, western Cerro de Pasco departments; districts of San Rafael, Mosca, Ambo, Huánuco, Pallanchacra, Huariaca, Yarusyacan, Ticlacayan, Yanacancha. SOUTH BOLIVIAN: Highland regions and lowland except around Apolo. Also spoken in Argentina. WANCA, HUAYLLA: Southern Junín Department, Huancayo and Concepción provinces. WANCA, JAUJA: Central Junín Department, Jauja Province. YAUYOS: Lima Department, Yauyos Province.
Countries Where Spoken: ANCASH, CHIQUIAN: 25,000 (1993 SIL). ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, NORTHERN: 200,000 or fewer, including 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census). ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, SOUTHERN: 250,000 or fewer, including 80,000 monolinguals (1994 census). ANCASH, CORONGO: 8,500 (1998N SIL). ANCASH, HUAYLAS: 300,000 to 350,000 (1998 SIL). APURIMAC: No estimate available. ANCASH, SIHUAS: 10,000 (1991 SIL). AREQUIPA-LA UNION: 18,000 (1998 SIL. AYACUCHO: 1,000,000 (1976 Soto Ruiz). CAJAMARCA: 35,000 (1981 D. Coombs SIL). CHACHAPOYAS: 3,000 to 5,000 (1976 SIL). CHILEAN: No estimate available. CLASSICAL: none CUZCO: 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). HUANUCO, HUALLAGA: 40,000 (1993 SIL). HUANUCO, HUAMALIES-NORTHERN DOS DE MAYO: 60,000 to 80,000 (1998 SIL). HUANUCO, PANAO: 17,540 including 10,000 monolinguals (1972 census). LAMBAYEQUE: 20,000 (1998 SIL). MARGOS-YAROWILCA-LAURICOCHA: 120,000 (1998 SIL); 15,000 monolinguals (1972 census). NORTH BOLIVIAN: 116,483 in Bolivia, including 18,452 monolinguals, 65,649 bilinguals in Spanish, 32,382 trilinguals in Aymara and Spanish (1978 census)). Population total both countries 116,500 or more. NORTH JUNIN: 60,000 (1998) including 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census). NORTH LIMA, CAJATAMBO: 16,525 (1974 SIL). NORTHWEST JUJUY: 5,000 possibly (1990 SIL). PACAROAS: 250 (1974 SIL) speakers (1984 P. Adelaar). PASCO, SANTA ANA DE TUSI: 10,000 (1993 SIL). PASCO-YANAHUANCA: 20,500 (1972 census)). PASTAZA, SOUTHERN: 1,000 to 2,000 (1998 SIL). PUNO: No estimate available. SAN MARTIN: 40,000 to 45,000 (1998 SIL). SAN RAFAEL-HUARIACA: 90,000 (1998 SIL). SOUTH BOLIVIAN: 2,782,500 in Bolivia, 37.1% of the population (1987). Population total both countries 3,632,500. Argentina. WANCA, HUAYLLA: 300,000 (1998 SIL). WANCA, JAUJA: 14,549 to 31,501 (1962 census). YAUYOS: 18,950 (1974 SIL).
Countries Where Official: Peru
   
Native Speakers: 116,500
Speakers Total: 116,500
  
Phrasebase members who speak Quechua at a native level: 0
Phrasebase members who speak Quechua at a conversational level: 0
Phrasebase members primary language they are trying to learn is Quechua: 0
Phrasebase members secondary language they are trying to learn is Quechua: 0
  
Three Letter Code: QEC
Alternative Names: CONCHUCOS QUECHUA, NORTHERN CONCHUCOS QUECHUA, CONCHUCOS QUECHUA, SOUTHERN CONCHUCOS QUECHUA, AREQUIPA QUECHUA, COTAHUASI QUECHUA, CHANKA, AMAZONAS, CUSCO QUECHUA, PACHITEA QUECHUA, FERREÑAFE, NORTH LA PAZ QUECHUA, TARMA-JUNÍN QUECHUA, JUNÍN QUECHUA, COLL
Dialects:
 
Summary: ANCASH, CHIQUIAN: Possibly intelligible with Cajatambo Quechua. 95% cognate with Ocros, 94% with La Unión and Cajatambo. Rural areas are predominately monolingual. Investigation needed: intelligibility. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, NORTHERN: Related to South Conchucos, Huamalíes, Sihuas. Rural areas are predominantly monolingual. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Bible portions 1990-1995. ANCASH, CONCHUCOS, SOUTHERN: Related to North Conchucos, Huamalíes, Huaylas. Rural areas are predominantly monolingual. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Bible portions 1992-1995. ANCASH, CORONGO: Most closely related to Huaylas and Sihuas Quechua. Limited bilingualism in Spanish. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. ANCASH, HUAYLAS: Parker says it is not intelligible with Cuzco, Ayacucho, Southern Junín (Huanca), Cajamarca, Amazonas (Chachapoyas), or San Martín Quechua. Rural areas are predominantly monolingual. Speakers use Spanish to communicate with Quechua speakers from Huánuco and Tarma because of differences in speech. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. NT 1993. APURIMAC: Different from Cuzco Quechua and Ayacucho Quechua. Investigation needed: intelligibility, bilingual proficiency. Bible portions 1974. ANCASH, SIHUAS: Investigation needed: intelligibility. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. AREQUIPA-LA UNION: Closer linguistically to Cuzco than to Ayacucho. Many monolinguals. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Bible portions 1993. AYACUCHO: 96% lexical similarity with Surcubamba, Puquio, and Cuzco. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: 5% to 10%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. Bible 1987. CAJAMARCA: Dialect differences are minor. 94% lexical similarity with Lambayeque (closest), 92% with Pacaraos, Tarma. Bilingual level estimates are Standard Spanish: 0 30%, 1 10%, 2 15%, 3 25%, 4 15%, 5 5%; Peasant Spanish: 0 15%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 15%, 4 30%, 5 10%. Strong Quechua use in Chetilla and Porcón. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: 1% to 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Bible portions 1985-1993. CHACHAPOYAS: Closest to San Martín. Some are still monolingual but are becoming bilingual in Spanish. All ages in Conila. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. CHILEAN: May be intelligible with, or the same as, Bolivian Quechua or Northwest Jujuy Quechua of Argentina. There may be no Quechua speakers in Chile. CLASSICAL: Extinct. Bible portions 1880. CUZCO: Some dialect differences, but not as distinct as elsewhere. Substantial phonological and morphological differences with Ayacucho Quechua. National language. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: 1% to 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. Bible 1988. HUANACO, HUALLAGA: 66% monolingual. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Radio programs. Bible portions 1917-1995. HUANUCO, HUAMALIES-NORTHERN DOS DE MAYO: 96% lexical similarity with La Unión and Panao Quechua. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Bible portions 1986-1992. HUANUCO, PANAO: 98% lexical similarity with La Unión, 96% with Cajatambo Quechua. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%. Bible portions 1994-1995. LAMBAYEQUE: 94% lexical similarity with Cajamarca Quechua. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Bible portions 1992. MARGOS-YAROWILCA-LAURICOCHA: Literature can be adapted from Huamalies. 98% lexical similarity with Panao, 96% with Corongo (Ancash), Sihuas, Monzón, Tarma, Ulcumayo Quechua. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Bible portions 1987-1991. NORTH BOLIVIAN: SOV. Radio programs. NT 1985. NORTH JUNIN: There are two dialects in Tarma Province which differ from the town of Junin. 97% lexical similarity with Cajatambo, 96% with La Unión Quechua. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 30%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 25%, 5 5%. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Mountain slope. Pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists. NT 1997. NORTH LIMA, CAJATAMBO: Literature probably needs to be adapted from Ancash. Cajatambo has 97% lexical similarity with Andajes, 96% with La Unión and Panao, 95% with Monzón, 94% with Chiquián. Pacaraos has 94% lexical similarity with Huarí, Cajatambo, Tarma, Carás Quechua. 7,650 in areas where it is used by all ages, 6,550 in others used by those 10 years or older, 250 in Pacaraos mainly 40 years or older (1974). Investigation needed: intelligibility, bilingual proficiency. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. NORTHWEST JUJUY: Different from Santiago del Estero (R. Nardi). Probably intelligible with South Bolivian Quechua. Apparent high bilingualism in Spanish. Migratory. Investigation needed: intelligibility with South Bolivian Quechua, bilingual proficiency. SOV. Traditional religion. PACAROAS: Divergent lexically, morphologically, and phonologically from other Quechua. By its archaic features it occupies an important position relative to the reconstruction of Proto-Quechua. 94% lexical similarity with Huarí, Cajatambo, Tarma, and Carás Quechua. All are elderly. SOV. Nearly extinct. PASCO, SANTA ANA DE TUSI: Probably a dialect of Ambo Quechua (San Rafael-Huariaca Quechua). Investigation needed: intelligibility with Ambo Quechua. SOV. PASCO-YANAHUANCA: Closely related to Junín Quechua. Many dialects intersect here. Literature in two or three dialects will need adaptation with Tusi and Huariaca. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. PASTAZA, SOUTHERN: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Distinct from Northern Pastaza Quechua of Peru and Ecuador. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 5% to 15%. Tropical forest. NT 1997. PUNO: Differs from Cuzco Quechua in its borrowing of lexicon and morphology from Aymara. Investigation needed: intelligibility. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. SAN MARTIN: Several minor dialects. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 10%, 2 39%, 3 40%, 4 1%, 5 0%. Dictionary. Grammar. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: 1% to 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 50% to 75%. Mountain valleys. Agriculturalists. NT 1992. SAN RAFAEL-HUARIACA: Santa Ana de Tusi Quechua may be a dialect. 35% monolingual in southern Huanuco. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 25% to 50%. Bible portions 1993. SOUTH BOLIVIAN: May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua, and Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. Dictionary. SOV. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1986-1993. WANCA, HUAYLLA: Waycha dialect is nearly extinct in Concepción. Dictionary. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%. Radio programs. Bible portions 1991-1992. WANCA, JAUJA: Considerable phonological differences with Tarma. Bilingualism in Spanish. Grammar. SOV. YAUYOS: Speakers include 3,800 in areas where it is used by all ages, and 9,200 in others where it is used by teenage and older (1974). There are monolinguals in the Chincha area. Not a single language, but a cover term for a highly differentiated linguistic area with many one-village varieties, which will probably need separate materials. Investigation needed: intelligibility with dialects. SOV. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: Below 5%.
 

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