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Zapotec Language Facts and Information

Information About Zapotec Language

Zapotec language topics and discussion
Zapotec speakers in the Phrasebase community
 
Extinct: no
Family: Other
Branch: Oto-Manguean
Continent: North America
Country: Mexico
 
Region: ALBARRADAS: Central Oaxaca, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas, San Miguel Albarradas. ALOÁPAM: Northern Oaxaca, San Miguel Aloápam, San Isidro Aloápam. AMATLÁN: Southern Oaxaca, east of Miahuatlán, 3 towns. ASUNCIÓN MIXTEPEC: Southwest of Oaxaca City in central Oaxaca, Asunción Mixtepec and another town. AYOQUESCO: Oaxaca, Santa María Ayoquesco, Santa Cruz Nexila, San Andres Zabache, and San Martín Lachila. CAJONOS: Northern Oaxaca, towns of San Pedro Cajonos, San Francisco Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Pablo Yaganiza, Xagacía. Also spoken in USA. CHICHICAPAN: Central Oaxaca. CHOAPAN: North central Oaxaca and Veracruz, including Comaltepec. COATECAS ALTAS: Ejutla, Oaxaca. COATLÁN: Southern Oaxaca near Chatino region, about 7 towns, but mainly in Santo Domingo Coatlán. EL ALTO: Western Oaxaca, San Pedro el Alto, San Antonino el Alto, San Andres el Alto. ELOTEPEC: Western Oaxaca, west of Zimatlán, 1 village. GUEVEA DE HUMBOLDT: Eastern Oaxaca. GÜILÁ: San Pablo Güilá and San Dionisio Ocotepec municipios, Oaxaca. ISTMO: Tehuantepec and Juchitán, Oaxaca. IXTLÁN SURESTE: Northern Oaxaca, Santa María Yavesía (center), Carrizal, Latuvi, Benito Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez, Santa Catarina Lachatao, Llano Grande, La Trinidad, Nevería, San Miguel Amatlán, Capulalpan de Morelos, Santiago Xiacui, Natividad, Guelatao de Juárez. JUÁREZ, SIERRA: Northern Oaxaca. LACHIGUIRI: Oaxaca, north of Isthmus, 15 km. southwest of Guevea de Humboldt. Includes towns in neighboring municipios, such as Santa María Totolapilla, Jalapa, and Magdalena. LACHIRIOAG: Oaxaca, San Cristóbal Lachiruáj. LOXICHA: Oaxaca, 120 km. south of Oaxaca city, west of highway 175, half way between Miahuatlán and Pochutla. Includes Candelaria Loxicha, Buena Vista, and San Bartolome Loxicha. MAZALTEPEC: Western Oaxaca Valley, Etla District, 20 km. northwest of Oaxaca city; Santo Tomás Mazaltepec, San Pedro y San Pablo Etla, and a few in San Andres Zautla. MIAHUATLÁN CENTRAL: South central Oaxaca, Cuixtla. MITLA: Mitla Valley, Oaxaca. MIXTEPEC: Southern Oaxaca. OCOTLÁN OESTE: Ocotlán, central Oaxaca, around Santiago Apóstol. OZOLOTEPEC: Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, east side of highway 175, about half way between Miahuatlán and coast. The majority of towns with "Ozolotepec" in the name are included. PETAPA: Oaxaca, north of the Isthmus, Juchitán District, Santa María Petapa and Santo Domingo Petapa. QUIAVICUZAS: Oaxaca, northeast corner of Yautepec District, 45 km. northeast of Pan American highway, 75 km. east of Mitla. San Carlos Yautepec Municipio: Santiago Quiavicuzas; Nejapa de Madero Municipio: San Juan Lachixila, Corral de Piedra, Carrizal; Guevea de Humboldt Municipio: Guadalupe Guevea. QUIOQUITANI Y QUIERÍ: Yautepec, Oaxaca, Quioquitani and Quierí municipios, and including Leapi. RINCÓN: Northern Oaxaca. RINCÓN SUR: Oaxaca. SAN AGUSTÍN MIXTEPEC: Oaxaca, Miahuatlán, town of San Agustín Mixtepec. SAN BALTÁZAR LOXICHA: Oaxaca, 115 km. south of Oaxaca city. San Baltázar Loxicha and Santa Catarina Loxicha. SAN JUAN GUELAVÍA: Central Oaxaca. Also spoken in USA. SAN PEDRO QUIATONI: Central Oaxaca, San Pedro Quiatoni, Salinas, Unión Juárez, and nearby settlements. SAN VICENTE COATLÁN: Oaxaca, Ejutla District, 90 km. south of Oaxaca city. San Vicente Coatlán, a municipio town. SANTA CATARINA ALBARRADAS: Oaxaca, Santa Catarina Albarradas. SANTA INeS YATZECHI: Central Oaxaca, Zimatlán District, 40 km. south of Oaxaca city, west of Ocotlán de Morelos. SANTA MARÍA QUIEGOLANI: Central Oaxaca. SANTIAGO LAPAGUÍA: Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including four towns: Lapaguía (700, monolingual), San Felipe Lachillo (500, settled from Lapaguía), La Merced del Potrero (2,500, bilingual), San Juan Guivini (500, monolingual). SANTIAGO XANICA: Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including four towns: Santiago Xanica, Santa María Coixtepec, San Andres Lovene, San Antonio Ozolotepec. SOLA DE VEGA ESTE: Western Oaxaca, eastern Sola de Vega, towns of Santa Marma Lachixío, San Vicente Lachixío. TABAA: Oaxaca. TEJALAPAN: Oaxaca, Etla District, town of San Felipe Tejalapan. TEXMELUCAN: Western Oaxaca. TILQUIAPAN: Central Oaxaca, Ocotlán, San Miguel Tilquiapan town. TLACOLULITA: Eastern Oaxaca, Asunción Tlacolulita and San Juan Alotepec. TOTOMACHAPAN: Western Oaxaca, 2 towns. XADANI: Oaxaca, Pochutla District, San Miguel del Puerto Municipio, Santa María Xadani, 16 towns or villages. XANAGUÍA: Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including three towns: Santa Catarina Xanaguía, San Francisco Ozolotepec, and San Jose Ozolotepec. YALÁLAG: Oaxaca. Also spoken in USA. YARENI: Northern Oaxaca. YATEE: Oaxaca, San Francisco Yatee, 4 towns. YATZACHI: Villages of Yatzachi el Bajo, Yatzachi el Alto,Xoochixtepec, Yohueche, Zoochina, Zoochila, Yalina, north central Oaxaca; and Los Angeles, California, USA. Also spoken in USA. YAUTEPEC: Eastern Oaxaca, San Bartolo Yautepec. ZAACHILA: Oaxaca, 15 km. south of the city of Oaxaca, past Xoxo, town of Zaachila (416 speakers out of 10,601 population) and San Raymundo Jalpan (116 speakers out of 1,270 population). A few in San Bartolo Coyotepec, San Pablo Cuatro Venados, and Santa María Coyotepec. ZANIZA: Western Oaxaca, Santa María Zaniza, Santiago Textitlán, Santiago Xochiltepec, El Frijol, Buenavista. ZOOGOCHO: Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua, and Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, and Mexico City. Also spoken in USA.
Countries Where Spoken: ALBARRADAS: 5,500 including 1,500 to 2,000 in Santo Domingo (1993 SIL). All Zapotec languages: 422,937 (1980 census). ALOÁPAM: No estimate available. AMATLÁN: 5,000 to 6,000 (1993 SIL). ASUNCIÓN MIXTEPEC: 100 or fewer speakers out of a population of 2,476 (1990 census). AYOQUESCO: 876 speakers, including 9 monolinguals (1990 census). CAJONOS: 5,000 (1993 SIL). Population total both countries 5,000. CHICHICAPAN: 4,000 (1993 SIL). CHOAPAN: 24,000 (1991 SIL). COATECAS ALTAS: 5,000 (1993 SIL) including 100 monolinguals (1990 census). COATLÁN: 500 or fewer (1992 SIL). EL ALTO: 900 speakers, including 29 monolinguals (1990 census). ELOTEPEC: 200 speakers (1990 census). GUEVEA DE HUMBOLDT: 7,000 (1977 SIL). GÜILÁ: 9,500 (1990 census), including 2,300 monolinguals. ISTMO: 85,000 (1990 census). IXTLÁN SURESTE: 6,000 (1992 SIL). JUÁREZ, SIERRA: 4,000 including 150 monolinguals (1990 census). LACHIGUIRI: 5,000 (1977 SIL). LACHIRIOAG: 2,000 speakers (1999 SIL). LOXICHA: 50,000 (1990 census). MAZALTEPEC: 2,200 including 24 monolinguals (1990 census). MIAHUATLÁN CENTRAL: 80,000 (1982 SIL). MITLA: 19,500 (1983 SIL), including 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). MIXTEPEC: 7,000 (1991 SIL). OCOTLÁN OESTE: 15,000 (1993 SIL). OZOLOTEPEC: 6,500 (1990 census); including the town of San Marcial (1,400 in 1973). PETAPA: 8,000 speakers, including 220 monolinguals (1990 census). QUIAVICUZAS: 4,000 (1990 census). QUIOQUITANI Y QUIERÍ: 4,000 (1991 SIL). RINCÓN: 23,000 to 27,000 (1990 census). RINCÓN SUR: 12,000 (1990 census). SAN AGUSTÍN MIXTEPEC: 59 speakers (1994 SIL). SAN BALTÁZAR LOXICHA: 1,500 including 19 monolinguals (1990 census). SAN JUAN GUELAVÍA: 28,000 (1990 census). Population total both countries 28,500. SAN PEDRO QUIATONI: 12,000 to 15,000 (1993 SIL). SAN VICENTE COATLÁN: 2,430 (1990 census). SANTA CATARINA ALBARRADAS: 1,000 or fewer (1990 census). SANTA INeS YATZECHI: 2,235 speakers (1990 census). SANTA MARÍA QUIEGOLANI: 3,000 (1990 census). SANTIAGO LAPAGUÍA: 4,200 (1983 SIL). SANTIAGO XANICA: 2,500 (1990 census). SOLA DE VEGA ESTE: 6,500 (1990 census). TABAA: 2,000 (1992 SIL). TEJALAPAN: 124 (1990 census). The town has 4,656 people. TEXMELUCAN: 4,100 (1992 SIL). TILQUIAPAN: 2,700 speakers including 900 monolinguals (1990 census). TLACOLULITA: 135 speakers out of a population of 904 (1990 census). TOTOMACHAPAN: 259 speakers out of a population of 1,009 (1990 census). XADANI: 338 speakers (1990 census). XANAGUÍA: 2,500 (1990 census). YALÁLAG: 5,000 (1990 census). 2,000 are in Yalálag, others are in D.F, Oaxaca City, Veracruz. Also in Los Angeles, California, USA. Population total both countries 5,000. YARENI: 6,000 (1982 SIL). YATEE: 3,000 (1999 SIL). YATZACHI: 2,500 (1990 census). Population total both countries 2,500. YAUTEPEC: 314 speakers (1990 census). ZAACHILA: 550 speakers out of a population of over 10,000 (1990 census). ZANIZA: 770 speakers including 4 monolinguals (1990 census). ZOOGOCHO: 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Population total both countries 1,400.
Countries Where Official: Mexico
   
Native Speakers: 0
Speakers Total: 0
  
Phrasebase members who speak Zapoteco at a native level: 0
Phrasebase members who speak Zapoteco at a conversational level: 0
Phrasebase members primary language they are trying to learn is Zapoteco: 0
Phrasebase members secondary language they are trying to learn is Zapoteco: 0
  
Three Letter Code: ZAS
Alternative Names: ALBARRADAS ZAPOTEC, ALOÁPAM ZAPOTEC, NORTHEASTERN MIAHUATLÁN, SAN FRANCISCO LOGUECHE ZAPOTECO, SAN CRISTÓBAL AMATLÁN ZAPOTECO, AMATLÁN ZAPOTEC, NORTH CENTRAL ZIMATLÁN ZAPOTECO, ASUNCIÓN MIXTEPEC ZAPOTEC, WESTERN EJUTLA ZAPOTECO, SANTA MARÍA AYOQUESCO ZAPO
Dialects:
 
Summary: ALBARRADAS: 39% intelligibility with Mitla (closest). Santa Catarina Albarradas may need separate literature. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 3%, 1 17%, 2 40%, 3 30%, 4 9%, 5 1%. Speakers switch to Spanish for communication with Mitla Zapoteco speakers. Spanish is generally used between them and the Mixe in mixed marriages. Since 1979 speakers in Santo Domingo have shown increasing preference for Zapoteco, but in Santa María it is reported to be diminishing in use. Some immigrant Mixe have learned the local Zapoteco, but few Xapoteco have learned Mixe. Tonal, VSO, varying word length, clitics and affixes. Literacy rate in first language: 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 80%. Gallery forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. 4,000 to 6,000 feet. ALOÁPAM: Different from Teococuilco Zapoteco. People are not bilingual in Spanish. VSO, tonal, affixes, clitics. Pine forest. Sedentary pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists. Bible portions 1996. AMATLÁN: Closest to Loxicha. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 15%, 3 4%, 4 1%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, short words. Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 35%. Gallery forest. Mountain slope. Sedentary pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists. 1,690 meters. Bible portions 1992-1995. ASUNCIÓN MIXTEPEC: 22% intelligibility of Ayoquesco (closest), and 3% of San Pedro el Alto. Bilingualism in Spanish. Nearly extinct. AYOQUESCO: Closest to Western Ocotlán Zapoteco (23% intelligibility). Bilingualism in Spanish. All ages in Santa Cruz Nexila. Most vigorous in Nexila where 52% of the population speak Zapoteco. They have pride in their language. CAJONOS: Yaganiza and Xagacía are similar. Major differences between those two towns and the other four towns; adaptation of literature will probably be needed. 73% intelligibility of San Pedro Cajonos with Zoogocho (closest other Zapoteco). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 20%, 2 15%, 3 25%, 4 10%, 5 10%. Many nearly monolingual speakers in Yaganiza. VSO, tonal, long words, affixes, clitics. The school is bilingual. Deciduous, pine forests. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists, craftsmen, merchants. 1,800 meters. Bible portions 1982. CHICHICAPAN: 59% intelligibility with Western Ocotlán (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 30%, 1 5%, 2 60%, 3 4%, 4 1%, 5 0%. Monolinguals are mainly women and older people. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: Below 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 30% to 50%. Desert, scrub, gallery forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists, sedentary pastoralists. 1,666 to 3,030 meters. NT 1990. CHOAPAN: 60% intelligibility with Zoogocho (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 25%, 2 30%, 3 20%, 4 12%, 5 3%. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Tropical. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. 840 meters. NT 1986. COATECAS ALTAS: Closest to San Gregorio Ozolotepec (83% intelligibility) and Miahuatlán (Cuitla). Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 20% to 30%. COATLÁN: 54% intelligibility of Loxicha (closest), 51% of San Gregorio Ozolotepec, 44% of Cuixtla, 29% of Logueche, 16% of San Juan Mixtepec, 1% of Santa Catalina Quierí. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Spanish. EL ALTO: 20% intelligibility with Totomachapan (closest). Bilingualism in Spanish. ELOTEPEC: 68% intelligibility of Santa María Zaniza (closest), 10% of Texmelucan. Bilingualism in Spanish. All are 50 years old and older (1990). Mountain slope. Nearly extinct. GUEVEA DE HUMBOLDT: 49% intelligibility with Lachiguiri (Northwestern Tehuantepec; closest). VSO, tonal, short words, clitics, affixes. Literacy rate in first language: 2%. Literacy rate in second language: 20% to 30%. 1,760 to 2,500 feet. Bible portions 1982. GÜILÁ: San Dionisio has 80% inherent intelligibility of Mitla. Güilá has 83% inherent intelligibility of Guelavía, 80% of Chichicapan, 69% of Tilquiapan, 41% of Mitla, 35% of Ocotlán, 5% of Santa María Albarradas. ISTMO: 18% intelligibility of Santa María Petapa (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 45%, 2 25%, 3 10%, 4 10%, 5 10%. Dictionary. Grammar. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Coastal. Fishermen, peasant agriculturalists, merchants. 0 meters. NT 1972. IXTLÁN SURESTE: 63% intelligibility of Atepec (Sierra de Juárez), 43% of Teococuilco. Bilingualism in Spanish. JUÁREZ, SIERRA: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 25%, 1 25%, 2 25%, 3 18%, 4 5%, 5 1%. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, long words, affixes, clitics. Scrub, pine forests. Mountain slope. Sedentary pastoralists, swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 1,540 to 2,770 meters. NT 1970. LACHIGUIRI: 62% intelligibility in Lachixila (Northeastern Yautepec) and Juchitán (Isthmus; closest). Although speakers are fairly bilingual in Spanish, there is a strong preference for Zapoteco. Mountains. 3,000 to 4,000 feet. LACHIRIOAG: Closest to Villa Alta Zapoteco and Yalalag Zapoteco, but different. Different from Yatee. Limited bilingualism in Spanish. LOXICHA: Distinct from San Baltázar Loxicha and Santa Catarina Loxicha. People in town centers are fairly bilingual in Spanish. In many towns perhaps 70% of the men and 90% of the women are monolingual. Bible portions. MAZALTEPEC: 10% intelligibility of Guelavía, none of other Zapoteco varieties. Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Spanish. Several bilingual school teachers. Zapoteco is used in the home. 25% of children do not speak Spanish when entering school. Vigorous. People have strong pride in the language. Kindergarten and primary school. Agriculturalists; adobe brick makers. 5,600 feet. MIAHUATLÁN CENTRAL: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 5%, 2 30%, 3 4%, 4 1%, 5 50%. Dictionary. SVO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Desert, scrub forest. Mountain slope. Swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 1,800 meters. NT 1971. MITLA: 75% intelligibility with Guelavía (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 5%, 1 30%, 2 30%, 3 15%, 4 15%, 5 5%. Dictionary. SVO or VSO, short and long words, clitics and affixes, tonal. Literacy rate in first language: 15%. Literacy rate in second language: 80% to 90%. Desert, gallery, scrub, deciduous, and pine forests. Mountain slope, plains. Pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists, craftsmen, merchants. 1,500 meters. NT 1981. MIXTEPEC: 80% intelligibility with Santiago Lapaguía (closest). A separate language from San Agustín Mixtepec Zapoteco. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 40%, 1 15%, 2 30%, 3 15%, 4 0%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, short words, clitics. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists, merchants. NT 1998. OCOTLÁN OESTE: 67% intelligibility with Tilquiapan (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 30%, 2 40%, 3 10%, 4 6%, 5 4%. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 50%. Deciduous forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists, merchants. 1,385 meters. NT 1983. OZOLOTEPEC: 87% intelligibility with Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán), 84% with Candelaria Loxicha (Northeastern Pochutla). Cuixtla literature not acceptable here. People in the towns of San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual. 6,000 feet. PETAPA: 55% intelligibility of Guevea (closest), 34% of Lachiguiri. Bilingualism in Spanish. QUIAVICUZAS: 59% intelligibility of Lachiguiri (Northwestern Tehuantepec; closest). Bilingualism in Spanish. 40 of the 180 monolinguals are between ages 5 to 9. Primary schools. Agriculturalists. 3,500 to 5,000 feet. QUIOQUITANI Y QUIERÍ: Closest to Eastern Miahuatlán. Bible portions 1990-1995. RINCÓN: 64% intelligibility with Choapan (closest). Temaxcalapan may not be part of this language. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 50%, 1 35%, 2 10%, 3 3%, 4 2%, 5 0%. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Temaxcalapan. VOS, short words, affixes, clitics. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 400 to 1,000 meters. NT 1971. RINCÓN SUR: NT 1992. SAN AGUSTÍN MIXTEPEC: A separate language from San Juan Mixtepec Zapoteco [ZPM]. Nearly extinct. SAN BALTÁZAR LOXICHA: 71% intelligibility with Santa María Coatlán (closest), 63% with Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán), 46.5% with San Vicente Coatlán. Bilingualism in Spanish. Pre-coastal mountains. 4,000 feet. SAN JUAN GUELAVÍA: 20% intelligibility with Zegache (closest). Jalieza has 99% intelligibility of Guelavía. Teotitlán del Valle has 100% intelligibility of Guelavía, but Guelavía only 59% of Teotitlán del Valle. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 40%, 1 10%, 2 10%, 3 20%, 4 10%, 5 10%. Investigation needed: intelligibility with Teotitlán del Valle. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in second language: 10%. Desert, scrub forest. Mountain valley. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,650 meters. NT 1995. SAN PEDRO QUIATONI: 76% intelligibility with Mitla; closest. Literacy rate in first language: 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 75%. Traditional religion. SAN VICENTE COATLÁN: 75% intelligibility of San Baltázar Loxicha (closest, Northwestern Pochutla), 45% of Santa María Coatlán. 166 of the 584 monolinguals are 5 to 9 years old (1990). Vigorous. Primary school. Agriculturalists; mezcal makers. SANTA CATARINA ALBARRADAS: 80% intelligibility of Santo Domingo Albarradas; Santo Domingo 52% of Santa Catarina. Differences in phonology and grammar between them. About half the population can understand San Pedro Cajonos Zapoteco reasonably well because of trading with them. SANTA INeS YATZECHI: 75% intelligibility with San Antonino Ocotlán (closest). Zaachila may need some separate literature. San Miguel Tilquiapan may be a dialect. 176 monolinguals. Zapoteco is apparently no longer spoken in Santa Ana Zegache, and going out of use in Zaachila. Vigorous use among children in Santa Ines, some of whom are monolinguals (1990). Bible portions 1989-1991. SANTA MARÍA QUIEGOLANI: 60% intelligibility with San Juan Mixtepec (closest). Traditional religion, Christian. SANTIAGO LAPAGUÍA: 80% intelligibility with San Juan Mixtepec Zapoteco. Speakers are not very bilingual in Spanish. SANTIAGO XANICA: 72% intelligibility with San Gregorio Ozolotepec, 70% with Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán). Bilingualism in Spanish. Agriculturalists: coffee. 3,000 to 4,000 feet. SOLA DE VEGA ESTE: Southwestern Zimatlán dialect speakers need separate literature. 73% intelligibility with San Pedro el Alto. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 <60%, 1 <30%, 2 <15%, 3 <8%, 4 <5%, 5 0%. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 5%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Pine forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. 1,846 to 2,460 meters. Bible portions 1984-1989. TABAA: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 50%, 1 30%, 2 13%, 3 5%, 4 2%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, long words, affixes, clitics. Scrub, pine forest. Mountain slope. Sedentary pastoralists, swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 300 to 800 meters. NT 1981. TEJALAPAN: A separate language from Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Zapoteco. Bilingualism in Spanish. 92 speakers are over 50 years old, including the 2 monolinguals. They came from Ixtepeji area 300 years ago. Nearly extinct. TEXMELUCAN: Closest to Western Sola de Vega (Zaniza). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 70%, 1 20%, 2 8%, 3 2%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Zaniza and Elotepec Zapoteco are also called "Papabuco." VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Pine, tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden, peasant agriculturalists. 1,365 to 1,846 meters. NT 1989. TILQUIAPAN: 87% intelligibility of Yatzechi, 65% of Chichicapan, 59% of Ocotlán, 45% of Guelavía. Bilingualism in Spanish. Sociolinguistic differences with nearest Zapoteco. Primary school with bilingual teachers. Semi-arid, rocky. Agriculturalists. 5,000 feet. TLACOLULITA: 15% intelligibility with Lachixila (closest), 10% on Mitla and Guelavía, 0% on Lachiguiri, Juchitán, Guevea de Humboldt, Petapa, San Juan Mixtepec, and Quiegolani. Bilingualism in Spanish. 111 speakers are 50 years old or older (1990). Nearly extinct. TOTOMACHAPAN: No intelligibility with other Zapoteco. Bilingualism in Spanish. Most speakers are over 50 years old (1990). Nearly extinct. XADANI: Bilingualism in Spanish. 122 speakers over 50 years old, 90 between 35 and 50, 1 monolingual (1990). Coastal. XANAGUÍA: 6th grade education in Spanish available in Xanaguía. Most children finish third or fourth grade. Those finishing 6th grade, the highest available locally, still have limited Spanish proficiency. Zapoteco is used by all in the home. All ages. They have pride in their language. Many women over 40 and some men have no education. VSO. Literacy rate in first language: 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 10%. Swidden agriculturalists. Mountains. 6,000 feet. Bible portions 1996. YALÁLAG: Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 10%, 2 30%, 3 30%, 4 10%, 5 10%. VSO, tonal, short words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Pine, scrub forests. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists, craftsmen. 1,400 meters. Bible portions 1988-1999. YARENI: 80% intelligibility with Sierra de Juárez Zapoteco (closest). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 20%, 1 40%, 2 25%, 3 10%, 4 5%, 5 0%. VSO, tonal, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: Below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: 60% to 75%. Pine forest. Sedentary pastoralists, peasant agriculturalists. 1,900 to 2,300 meters. Bible portions 1966-1990. YATEE: Closest to Villa Alta Zapoteco and Yalalag Zapoteco, but distinct. Different from Lachiruaj. Limited bilingualism in Spanish. Bible portions 1999. YATZACHI: 90% intelligibility with Zoogocho on narrative, 85% with Cajonos (Southern Villa Alta) and Yalálag, and somewhat intelligible with Solaga and Tabaa. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 10%, 2 40%, 3 20%, 4 14%, 5 1%. Dictionary. Grammar. VSO, tonal, long words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 30%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists in Oaxaca, wage laborers outside. 615 to 1,690 meters. NT 1971. YAUTEPEC: 10% intelligibility with Tlacolulita (closest), no intelligibility of other Zapoteco. Bilingualism in Spanish. 126 speakers between 35 and 50 years old, 138 over 50, 4 monolinguals over 50 (1990). ZAACHILA: 85% intelligibility of Zegeche, 75% of Tilquiapan, 72% of Guelavía, 10% of Ocotlán. Bilingualism in Spanish. Only those over 50 years of age understand but do not normally speak it, but this includes 3 women monolinguals (1990). No children speak it. ZANIZA: 10% intelligibility with Texmelucan (closest). Bilingualism in Spanish. 35% of speakers are under 40. Texmelucan is also called "Papabuco." ZOOGOCHO: 57% intelligibility with Comaltepec (Choapan; closest). Zoogocho is the market town, so most Yatzachi people go there weekly, but Zoogocho people do not understand Yatzachi as well (80%). Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 10%, 2 45%, 3 20%, 4 14%, 5 1%. The local economy is supported to a large extent by those working outside the area. Dictionary. VSO, tonal, long words, affixes, clitics. Literacy rate in first language: 30%. Literacy rate in second language: 60%. Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists in Zoogocho, wage laborers outside. 900 to 1,800 meters. NT 1988.
 

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